Velocity Measurements and Crack Density Determination During Wet Triaxial Experiments on Oshima and Toki Granites
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— A set of experiments on four samples of Oshima Granite at 15, 40 and 60 MPa confining pressure have been performed in order to investigate the damage behavior of granite submitted to deviatoric stress. In addition an experiment on one sample of Toki Granite at 40 MPa confining pressure was performed, in order to compare and elucidate the structural effects. Using acoustic emission data, strain measurements and elastic wave velocities allow to define consistently a damage domain in the stress space. In this domain, microcracking develops. The microcracking process is, in a first stage, homogeneous and, close to failure, localized. Elastic wave velocities decrease in the damage domain and elastic anisotropy develops. Using Kachanov's model (1993), elastic wave velocities have been inverted to derive the full second-order crack density tensor and characterize the fluid saturation state from the fourth-order crack density tensor. Crack density is strongly anisotropic and the total crack density close to failure slightly above one. The results indicate that the rock is saturated in agreement with the experimental conditions. The model is thus shown to be very appropriate to infer from elastic wave velocities a complete quantitative characterization of the damaged rock.
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