Journal of Geographical Systems

, Volume 2, Issue 3, pp 307–317 | Cite as

Implementing functions for spatial statistical analysis using the \(\) language

  • Roger Bivand
  • Albrecht Gebhardt


\(\) is a language similar to \(\) for statistical data analysis, based on modern programming concepts and released under the GNU General Public License. It permits the integration of program scripts with compiled dynamically loaded libraries of functions when computing speed is important. Following a broad outline of existing collections of functions for spatial statistics written for \(\), we show how they may be ported to \(\), and compare their characteristics. We further demonstrate how existing work may be extended to topics not yet covered, and how libraries of functions may be constructed.

Key words: Spatial statistics, data analysis, R programming language 
JEL classifications: C10, C88, R15 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roger Bivand
    • 1
  • Albrecht Gebhardt
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Geography, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration, Breiviksveien 40, N-5045 Bergen, Norway (e-mail:
  2. 2.Department of Applied Statistics, Institute of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Klagenfurt, Villacher Str. 161, A-9020 Klagenfurt, Austria (e-mail:

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