This review focuses on technological advances and relevant research related to ureteral stents. The importance of physical and chemical biomaterial type, biocompatibility, material coatings such as hydrogels, and infection related to indwelling ureteral stents are discussed. Recent in vitro and in vivo research has focused on materials that will reduce encrustation and bacterial biofilm formation. The adsorption of antimicrobials onto devices holds promise of reducing infection rates, but multidrug resistant bacteria, short leaching times and adverse side effects make it essential that alternative strategies be investigated. Just so, encrustation limits the long-term use of urinary materials, and a better understanding of factors involved in encrustation are needed to reduce the problem.
KeywordsInfection Rate Technological Advance Material Coating Alternative Strategy Relevant Research
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