The Effect of Gibberellins on Flowering in Roses
The gibberellins A1, A3, A5, A8, A19, A20, and A29 were identified in vegetative shoot tips of Rosa canina by comparing their mass spectra and Kovats retention indices with those of standards. Most wild roses have a short flowering season of 2–4 weeks in spring, whereas most modern cultivars flower recurrently. `Félicité et Perpétue' is a short-season hybrid from a cross between a wild rose and a recurrent-flowering rose, whereas its sport, `Little White Pet,' flowers recurrently. The concentrations of gibberellins (GAs) were measured in shoot apices of both cultivars. In March (before floral initiation in spring) the concentrations of GA1 and GA3 were respectively threefold and twofold higher in `Félicité et Perpétue' than in `Little White Pet.' In April (after floral initiation) the concentrations of both gibberellins were substantially greater than in March, and concentrations of GA1 and GA3 were, respectively, 17-fold and 12-fold greater in `Félicité et Perpétue' than in `Little White Pet.' It is postulated that, in `Félicité et Perpétue,' floral initiation occurs when concentrations of GAs are low and is inhibited when concentrations of GAs are high, whereas in `Little White Pet' concentrations of GAs remain at permissive levels throughout the growing season. Applications of GA1 and GA3 to axillary shoots in March inhibited floral development in `Félicité et Perpétue' but not in `Little White Pet.' This suggests that the combined concentration of exogenous and endogenous gibberellins might have been raised to inhibitory levels in the former but not in the latter cultivar.
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