In Vitro Culture of Rudimentary Embryos of Ilex paraguariensis: Responses to Exogenous Cytokinins
The effects of benzyladenine (BAP), kinetin (KIN), zeatin (ZEA), isopentenyladenine (2iP), and thidiazuron (TDZ) were studied on in vitro growth of rudimentary embryos of Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. Heart stage zygotic embryos were removed from seeds of immature, light green fruits and cultured aseptically on quarter-strength Murashige and Skoog medium containing 3% sucrose, 0.65% agar, and supplemented with or without three concentrations of BAP, KIN, ZEA, 2iP, or TDZ. Cultures were incubated in darkness at 27 ± 2°C. Media containing 4.4 × 10−6m BAP, 4.6 × 10−6m KIN, or 4.9 × 10−6m 2iP were totally ineffective in inducing embryo growth after culture for 28 days. However, lower concentrations of these compounds (4.4 × 10−8m BAP, 4.6 × 10−8m KIN, 4.5 × 10−8m ZEA, or 4.9 × 10−8m 2iP) promoted embryo growth. TDZ at 9.9 × 10−9m, 9.9 × 10−8m, or 9.9 × 10−7m induced embryo growth at similar rates. The maximum percentage of embryos converted to seedlings was achieved when the medium was supplemented with 4.5 × 10−7m ZEA.
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