Genetic analysis of kernel hardness in bread wheat using PCR-based markers
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In wheat, kernel hardness is a complex genetic trait involving various directly and indirectly contributing components such as kernel hardness per se, protein content, hectolitre weight and 1,000-kernel weight. In an attempt to identify DNA markers associated with this trait, 100 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between a hard grain land-race, NP4, and a soft grain variety, HB 208, were screened with 100 ISSR and 360 RAPD primers. Eighteen markers were assigned to seven linkage groups covering 223.6 cM whereas 11 markers remained unlinked. A multiple-marker model explained the percentage of phenotypic variation for kernel hardness as 20.6%, whereas that for protein content, hectolitre weight and 1,000-kernel weight was 18.8%, 13.5% and 12.1%, respectively. Our results indicate that phenotypic expression of kernel hardness is controlled by many QTLs and is interdependent on various related traits.
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