U(1) mixing and D-brane linear equivalence

  • Fernando Marchesano
  • Diego Regalado
  • Gianluca Zoccarato
Open Access


Linear equivalence is a criterion that compares submanifolds in the same homology class. We show that, in the context of type II compactifications with D-branes, this concept translates to the kinetic mixing between U(1) gauge symmetries arising in the open and closed string sectors. We argue that in generic D-brane models such mixing is experimentally detectable through the existence of milli-charged particles. We compute these gauge kinetic functions by classifying the 4d monopoles of a compactification and analyzing the Witten effect on them, finding agreement with previous results and extending them to more general setups. In particular, we compute the gauge kinetic functions mixing bulk and magnetized D-brane U(1)’s and derive a generalization of linear equivalence for these objects. Finally, we apply our findings to F-theory SU(5) models with hypercharge flux breaking.


Solitons Monopoles and Instantons Intersecting branes models D-branes Superstring Vacua 


Open Access

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY 4.0), which permits any use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fernando Marchesano
    • 1
  • Diego Regalado
    • 1
    • 2
  • Gianluca Zoccarato
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Instituto de Física Teórica UAM-CSICCantoblancoSpain
  2. 2.Departamento de Física TeóricaUniversidad Autónoma de MadridMadridSpain

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