The elastic scattering of an atomic nucleus plays a central role in dark matter direct detection experiments. In those experiments, it is usually assumed that the atomic electrons around the nucleus of the target material immediately follow the motion of the recoil nucleus. In reality, however, it takes some time for the electrons to catch up, which results in ionization and excitation of the atoms. In previous studies, those effects are taken into account by using the so-called Migdal’s approach, in which the final state ionization/excitation are treated separately from the nuclear recoil. In this paper, we reformulate the Migdal’s approach so that the “atomic recoil” cross section is obtained coherently, where we make transparent the energy-momentum conservation and the probability conservation. We show that the final state ionization/excitation can enhance the detectability of rather light dark matter in the GeV mass range via the nuclear scattering. We also discuss the coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering, where the same effects are expected.
Beyond Standard Model Dark matter Dark Matter and Double Beta Decay (experiments) Electroweak interaction
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY 4.0), which permits any use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.
G. Bertone, D. Hooper and J. Silk, Particle dark matter: Evidence, candidates and constraints, Phys. Rept.405 (2005) 279 [hep-ph/0404175] [INSPIRE].
H. Murayama, Physics Beyond the Standard Model and Dark Matter, in Les Houches Summer School — Session 86: Particle Physics and Cosmology: The Fabric of Spacetime, Les Houches, France, July 31-August 25, 2006 (2007), arXiv:0704.2276 [INSPIRE].
J.D. Lewin and P.F. Smith, Review of mathematics, numerical factors and corrections for dark matter experiments based on elastic nuclear recoil, Astropart. Phys.6 (1996) 87 [INSPIRE].ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
B.M. Roberts, V.A. Dzuba, V.V. Flambaum, M. Pospelov and Y.V. Stadnik, Dark matter scattering on electrons: Accurate calculations of atomic excitations and implications for the DAMA signal, Phys. Rev.D 93 (2016) 115037 [arXiv:1604.04559] [INSPIRE].
A.B. Migdal, Ionization of atoms accompanying α- and β-decay, J. Phys. USSR4 (1941) 449.Google Scholar
G. Baur, F. Rosel and D. Trautmann, Ionisation induced by neutrons, J. Phys.B 16 (1983) L419.Google Scholar
L.D. Landau and E.M. Lifshits, Quantum Mechanics, in Course of Theoretical Physics, Vol. 3, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford (1991).Google Scholar
J.R. Ellis, R.A. Flores and J.D. Lewin, Rates for Inelastic Nuclear Excitation by Dark Matter Particles, Phys. Lett.B 212 (1988) 375 [INSPIRE].
R. Bernabei et al., Improved limits on WIMP-129Xe inelastic scattering, New J. Phys.2 (2000) 15.Google Scholar
C. McCabe, The Astrophysical Uncertainties Of Dark Matter Direct Detection Experiments, Phys. Rev.D 82 (2010) 023530 [arXiv:1005.0579] [INSPIRE].
A.M. Green, Astrophysical uncertainties on direct detection experiments, Mod. Phys. Lett.A 27 (2012) 1230004 [arXiv:1112.0524] [INSPIRE].
A. Thompson et al., X-ray Data Booklet, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, (2001).Google Scholar
R.S. Mulliken, Potential Curves of Diatomic Rare-Gas Molecules and Their Ions, with Particular Reference to Xe2, J. Chem. Phys.52 (1970) 5170.Google Scholar
A. Hitachi, T. Doke and A. Mozumder, Luminescence quenching in liquid argon under charged-particle impact: Relative scintillation yield at different linear energy transfers, Phys. Rev.B 46 (1992) 11463 [INSPIRE].
M. Horn et al., Nuclear recoil scintillation and ionisation yields in liquid xenon from ZEPLIN-III data, Phys. Lett.B 705 (2011) 471 [arXiv:1106.0694] [INSPIRE].
XENON100 collaboration, E. Aprile et al., Response of the XENON100 Dark Matter Detector to Nuclear Recoils, Phys. Rev.D 88 (2013) 012006 [arXiv:1304.1427] [INSPIRE].
LUX collaboration, D.S. Akerib et al., Low-energy (0.7-74 keV ) nuclear recoil calibration of the LUX dark matter experiment using D-D neutron scattering kinematics, arXiv:1608.05381 [INSPIRE].
E. Aprile et al., Scintillation response of liquid xenon to low energy nuclear recoils, Phys. Rev.D 72 (2005) 072006 [astro-ph/0503621] [INSPIRE].
A. Manzur, A. Curioni, L. Kastens, D.N. McKinsey, K. Ni and T. Wongjirad, Scintillation efficiency and ionization yield of liquid xenon for mono-energetic nuclear recoils down to 4 keV, Phys. Rev.C 81 (2010) 025808 [arXiv:0909.1063] [INSPIRE].
Y. Hochberg, Y. Kahn, M. Lisanti, C.G. Tully and K.M. Zurek, Directional detection of dark matter with two-dimensional targets, Phys. Lett.B 772 (2017) 239 [arXiv:1606.08849] [INSPIRE].
F. Kadribasic, N. Mirabolfathi, K. Nordlund, E. Holmström and F. Djurabekova, Directional Sensitivity In Light-Mass Dark Matter Searches With Single-Electron Resolution Ionization Detectors, arXiv:1703.05371 [INSPIRE].
G. Cavoto, F. Luchetta and A.D. Polosa, Sub-GeV Dark Matter Detection with Electron Recoils in Carbon Nanotubes, Phys. Lett.B 776 (2018) 338 [arXiv:1706.02487] [INSPIRE].