An Analysis of Generalized Identity Matching-to-Sample Test Procedures
This paper examines issues that must be considered when evaluating generalized identity matching to sample. We suggest that (a) stimuli displayed together on tests of generalized identity matching should have comparable experimental histories, and (b) identity matching procedures should be differentiated as either “conditional” or “nonconditional,” depending upon whether or not conditional discrimination is required. Although either type of procedure might be adequate for demonstrating a “matching concept,” we suggest that only generalized conditional identity matching provides an adequate test for the reflexive property of conditional relations.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- CUMMING, W. W., & BERRYMAN, R. (1965). The complex discriminated operant: Studies of matching-to-sample and related problems. In D. I. Mostofsky (Ed.), Stimulus generalization (pp. 284–330). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
- DIXON, M. H., DIXON, L. S., & SPRADLIN, J. E. (1983). Analysis of individual differences of stimulus control among developmentally disabled children. In K. D. Gadow & I. Bialer (Eds.), Advances in Learning and Behavioral Disabilities, 2, 85–110. New York: Jai Press.Google Scholar
- DUBE, W. V., IENNACO, F. M., ROCCO, F., KLEDARAS, J. B., & MCILVANE, W. J. (in press). Microcomputer-based programmed instruction in identity matching to sample for persons with severe disabilities. Journal of Behavioral Education.Google Scholar
- HERMAN, L. M., HOVANCIK, J. R., GORY, J. D., & BRADSHAW, G. L. (1989). Generalization of visual matching by a bottlenosed dolphin (Tursiops truncatus): Evidence for invariance of cognitive performance with visual and auditory materials. Journal of the Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 15, 124–136.Google Scholar
- LANCIONI, G. E., & SMEETS, P. M. (1986). Procedures and parameters of errorless discrimination training with developmentally impaired individuals. In N. R. Ellis & N. W. Bray (Eds.), International Review of Research in Mental Retardation, Vol. 14 (pp. 135–164). New York: Academic PressCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- PREMACK, D. (1978). On the abstractness of human concepts: Why it would be difficult to talk to a pigeon. In S. H. Hulse, H. Fowler, & W. K. Honig (Eds.), Cognitive processes in animal behavior (pp. 423–451). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- SCHUSTERMAN, R. J., GISINER, R., GRIMM, B. K., & HANGGI, E. B. (in press). Behavior control by exclusion and attempts at establishing semanticity in marine mammals using match-to-sample paradigms. In H. Roitblat, L. Herman, & P. Nachtigall (Eds.), Language and communication: Comparative perspectives. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- SIDMAN, M. (1986). Functional analysis of emergent verbal classes. In T. Thompson & M. D. Zeiler (Eds.), Analysis and integration of behavioral units (pp. 213–245). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- WRIGHT, A. A., URCUIOLI, P. J., & SANDS, S. F. (1986). Proactive interference in animal memory. In D. F. Kendrick, M. E. Rilling, & M. R. Denny (Eds.), Theories of animal memory (pp. 101–125). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- WYCKOFF, L. B., Jr. (1969). The role of observing responses in discrimination learning. In D. P. Hendry (Ed.), Conditioned reinforcement (pp. 237–260). Homewood, IL: Dorsey.Google Scholar