, Volume 8, Issue 8, pp 1024–1025 | Cite as

Activity Coefficient of Copper in Liquid Iron at 1600°C

  • Frederick C. Langenberg
Technical Note


  1. 1.
    L. Améen and C. Pfeiffer: On the Possibility of Removing Copper from Steel and Pig Iron. Jernkontorets Annaler, 1953, vol. 137, pp. 238–251.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    F. C. Langenberg and R. W. Lindsay: The Removal of Copper from Iron-Copper-Carbon Alloys. AIME Trans., 1954, vol. 200, pp. 967–968; Journal of Metals, August 1954.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    F. C. Langenberg, R. W. Lindsay, and D. P. Robertson: Removal of Copper from Iron-Copper-Carbon Melts by the Use of Sodium Sulfide Slags. Blast Furnace and Steel Plant, 1955, vol. 43, No. 10, pp. 1142–1147.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Y. H. Chou: Sc.D. Thesis, Carnegie Inst, of Technology, 1947.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    J. Chipman: Activities in Liquid Metallic Solutions. Discussions, Faraday Soc., 1948, No. 4, pp. 23–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    P. J. Koros and J. Chipman: Activity Coefficient of Cu in Liquid Fe, Fe−C and Fe−C−Si Alloys at 1600°C. AIME Trans., 1956, vol. 206, p. 1102; Journal of Metals, August 1956.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. Hansen: Der Aufbau der Zweistofflegierungen. 1936. Berlin. Julius Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    K. Bornemann and K. Wagenmann: Die elektrische Leitfahigkeit der Metallegierungen im Flüssigen Zustande. Ferrum, 1914, vol. 11, pp. 289–314.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. Kawakami: A Further Investigation of the Heat of Mixture in Molten Metals. Science Reports, Tôhoku Imperial University, Japan, 1930 vol. 19, pp. 521–549.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 1956

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frederick C. Langenberg
    • 1
  1. 1.Crucible Steel Co. of AmericaPittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations