Advertisement

Historical Archaeology

, Volume 33, Issue 1, pp 87–101 | Cite as

Go gCuire Dia Rath Agus Blath Ort (God grant that you prosper and flourish): Social and economic mobility among the Irish in Nineteenth-Century New York City

  • Heather J. Griggs
Article

Abstract

In the past, many historical archaeologists have focused on measuring differences in ethnicity and class in a variety of different contexts. Usually, these studies attempt to quantify differences between groups based on artifact groups that may display social or economic diversion in consumer behavior. The 1991 excavation and subsequent analysis of the Five Points Archaeological Project in New York City has presented an opportunity to view the archaeology of a neighborhood composed of diverse social and economic groups living in close quarters. This work is an exploration of ways in which the archaeological and historical records may disclose varying class and ethnic behaviors within a neighborhood that would be traditionally characterized as “working class.”

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen, Oliver E. 1993 The Tiger: The Rise and Fall of Tammany Hall. Addison-Wesley Company, New York.Google Scholar
  2. Baker, Vernon G. 1980 Archaeological Visibility of Afro-American Culture: An Example from Black Lucy’s Garden. In Archaeological Perspectives on Ethnicity in America, edited by Robert L. Schuyler, pp. 29–37. Baywood, Farmingdale, NY.Google Scholar
  3. Barth, Fredrick 1996 Ethnic Groups and Boundaries. In Theories of Ethnicity: A Classical Reader, edited by Werner Sollors, pp. 294–324. New York University Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baugher, Sherene 1982 Hoboken Hollow: A 19th Century Worker’s Housing Site. Northeast Historical Archaeology 11:26–38.Google Scholar
  5. Blumin, Stuart M. 1989 The Emergence of the Middle Class, Social Experience in the American City, 1790–1900. Cambridge University Press, London, England.Google Scholar
  6. Bonasera, Michael 1995 Feature J Glass Analysis. Manuscript, Foley Square Archaeological Laboratory, New York.Google Scholar
  7. 1998 Good for What Ails You: Medicinal Use at the Five Points. In Tales of Five Points: Working-Class Life in 19th-century New York, Vol. 2, edited by Rebecca Yamin. Submitted to General Services Administration from John Milner Associates, Inc.Google Scholar
  8. Bonasera, Michael and Claudia Milne 1996 Bottles and Bones, Foodways at the Five Points. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Council for Northeastern Historical Archaeology, Albany, NY.Google Scholar
  9. Brighton, Stephen 1998 The Evolution of Ceramic Production and Distribution as Viewed from the Five Points. In Tales of Five Points: Working-Class Life in 19th-century New York, Vol. 2, edited by Rebecca Yamin. Submitted to General Services Administration from John Milner Associates, Inc.Google Scholar
  10. Casey, Marion R. 1988 A Quantitative Analysis of Certain Characteristics of New York’s Irish/Irish-American Middle Class Community in the Middle of the Nineteenth Century. Manuscript, Department of History, New York University, New York.Google Scholar
  11. Cheek, Charles D. and Amy Friedlander 1989 Pottery and Pig’s Feet: Space, Ethnicity, and Neighborhood in Washington, D.C., 1880–1940. Historical Archaeology 23(2):34–60.Google Scholar
  12. City of New York 1850 Census Enumerations for the Sixth Ward of the City of New York. City of New York Municipal Archives, New York.Google Scholar
  13. 1855 Census Returns for the Sixth Ward of the City of New York. City of New York Municipal Archives, New York.Google Scholar
  14. Curtis, L. Perry, Jr. 1997 Apes and Angels, The Irishman in Victorian Caricature. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington.Google Scholar
  15. De Cunzo, Lu Ann 1982 Households, Economics, and Ethnicity in Paterson’s Dublin, 1829–1915: The Van Houten Street Parking Lot Block. Northeast Historical Archaeology 11:9–25.Google Scholar
  16. Devlin, William E. 1996 Shrewd Irishmen: Irish Entrepreneurs and Artisans in New York’s Clothing Industry 1830–1880. In The New York Irish, edited by Ronald H. Bayor and Timothy J. Meagher, pp. 169–192. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.Google Scholar
  17. Diner, Hasia R. 1996 “The Most Irish City in the Union”: The Era of the Great Migration, 1844–1877. In The New York Irish, edited by Ronald H. Bayor and Timothy J. Meagher, pp.87–106. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.Google Scholar
  18. Dolan, Jay P. 1975 The Immigrant Church, New York’s Irish and German Catholics 1815–1865. University of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame, IN.Google Scholar
  19. Eells, Thomas S. 1856 Time’s Changes—The New House of Industry. Five Points Monthly 3(1):9–12.Google Scholar
  20. Ferguson, Leland 1980 Looking for the “Afro” in Colono-Indian Pottery. In Archaeological Perspectives on Ethnicity in America, edited by Robert L. Schuyler, pp. 14–28. Baywood, Farmingdale, NY.Google Scholar
  21. Fitts, Robert K. and Rebecca Yamin 1996 The Archaeology of Domesticity in Victorian Brooklyn: Phase II and III Excavations at the Atlantic Terminal Urban Renewal Area, Brooklyn, New York. Submitted to Atlantic Housing Corporation, New York.Google Scholar
  22. Gans, Herbert 1996 Symbolic Ethnicity: The Future of Ethnic Groups and Cultures in America. In Theories of Ethnicity: A Classical Reader, edited by Werner Sollors, pp. 425–459. New York University Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Geismar, Joan H. 1980 Skunk Hollow: A Preliminary Statement on Archaeological Investigations of a 19th Century Black Community. In Archaeological Perspectives on Ethnicity in America, edited by Robert L. Schuyler, pp. 61–75. Baywood, Farmingdale, NY.Google Scholar
  24. Glassie, Henry 1972 Passing the Time in Ballymenone, Culture and History of an Ulster Community. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, PA.Google Scholar
  25. Groneman Pernicone, Carol 1973 “The ‘Bloody Ould Sixth’”: A Social Analysis of a New York City Working Class Community in the Mid-Nineteenth Century. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of History, University of Rochester, New York. University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  26. Gutman, Herbert G. 1966 Work, Culture, and Society in Industrializing America. Vintage Books, New York.Google Scholar
  27. Hill, Lord George 1995 Facts From Gweedore: With Useful Hints To Donegal Tourists, The Parish of Tullaghobegley, Barony of Kilmacrennan, County of Donegall. In The Famine Decade, Contemporary Accounts 184–1851, edited by John Killen, p. 29. Blackstaff Press, Belfast, Ireland.Google Scholar
  28. Hodges, Graham 1996 “Desirable Companions and Lovers”: Irish and African Americans in the Sixth Ward, 1830–1870. In The New York Irish, edited by Ronald H. Bayor and Timothy J. Meagher, pp. 107–124. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.Google Scholar
  29. Howson, Jean 1990 Social Relations and Material Culture: A Critique of the Archaeology of Plantation Slavery. Historical Archaeology 24 (4):78–91.Google Scholar
  30. Ignatiev, Noel 1995 How the Irish Became White. Routledge, London, England.Google Scholar
  31. Killen, John (editor) 1995 Downpatrick Recorder [County Down]. In The Famine Decade, Contemporary Accounts 1841–1851, p. 221. Blackstaff Press, Belfast, Ireland.Google Scholar
  32. McCaffrey, Lawrence J. 1996 Forging Forward and Looking Back. In The New York Irish, edited by Ronald H. Bayor and Timothy J. Meagher, pp. 213–233. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.Google Scholar
  33. McGuire, Randall H. 1982 The Study of Ethnicity in Historical Archaeology. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 1:159–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Miller, Kerby A. 1985 Emigrants and Exiles, Ireland and the Irish Exodus to North America. Oxford University Press, Oxford, England.Google Scholar
  35. New York Historical Society 1853 Maps of the City of New York. New York Historical Society, New York.Google Scholar
  36. New York Public Library 1855–1863 Deposit Ledgers from the Emigrant Saving Bank. Rare Books and Manuscripts Division, New York Public Library Main Branch, New York.Google Scholar
  37. Pitts, Reginald, Robert K. Fitts, and Claudia Milne 1998 A Complete Historical Overview of Block 160. In Tales of the Five Points: Working-Class Life in 19th-century New York, Vol. 1, edited by Rebecca Yamin, Chapters 2–4. Submitted to General Services Administration from John Milner Associates, Inc.Google Scholar
  38. Scherzer, Kenneth 1992 The Unbounded Community: Neighborhood Life and Social Structure in New York City, 1830–1875. Duke University Press, Durham, NC.Google Scholar
  39. Shepard, Stephen Judd 1987 Status Variation in Antebellum Alexandria: An Archaeological Study of Ceramic Tableware. In Consumer Choice in Historical Archaeology, edited by Suzanne M. Spencer-Wood. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  40. Smith, Matthew Hale 1868 Sunshine and Shadow in New York. J. B. Burr and Company, Hartford, CT.Google Scholar
  41. Sollors, Werner 1996 Forward: Theories of Ethnicity. In Theories of Ethnicity: A Classical Reader, edited by Werner Sollors, pp. x–xlvi. New York University Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Spencer-Wood, Suzanne M. and Scott D. Heberling 1987 Consumer Choices in White Ceramics : A Comparison of Eleven Early Nineteenth-Century Sites. In Consumer Choice in Historical Archaeology, edited by Suzanne Spencer-Wood. Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Stott, Richard B. 1990 Workers in the Metropolis: Class, Ethnicity, and Youth in Antebellum New York City. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.Google Scholar
  44. Thernstrom, Stephen 1971 Poverty and Progress, Social Mobility in a Nineteenth Century City. Athenaeum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  45. United States Department of Commerce 1975 Historical Statistics of the United States: Colonial Times to 1970. United States Department of Commerce, Washington.Google Scholar
  46. Wilentz, Sean 1984 Chants Democratic, New York City and the Rise of the Working Class, 1788–1850. Oxford University Press, Oxford, England.Google Scholar
  47. Wood Hill, Marilynn 1993 Their Sisters’ Keepers, Prostitution in New York City 1830–1870. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.Google Scholar
  48. Wurst, LouAnn. 1994 Colonizing Ourselves: The Last Frontier?. Paper Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, Anaheim, CA.Google Scholar
  49. Yamin, Rebecca 1998 Appendix A: Archaeological Feature Descriptions, Profiles, and Artifact Tables (Ceramics, Glass, and Small Finds). In Tales of Five Points: Working-Class Life in 19th-century New York, Vol. 1, edited by Rebecca Yamin. Submitted to General Services Administration from John Milner Associates, Inc.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Society for Historical Archaeology 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Heather J. Griggs
    • 1
  1. 1.Foley Square LaboratoryJohn Milner Associates, Inc.New YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations