Advertisement

Gewollte und ungewollte Anreizwirkungen von variablen Löhnen: Disziplinierung der Agenten oder Crowding-Out?

  • Antoinette Weibel
  • Katja Rost
  • Margit Osterloh
Article

Zusammenfassung

Seit längerer Zeit wird kontrovers über die Auswirkung variabler, leistungsbezogener Entlohnung auf das Arbeitsverhalten diskutiert. Wir untersuchen mit einem experimentellen Vignettendesign in einem berufsnahen Kontext, wie variable Löhne die handlungsauslösende Ursachenzuschreibung verschieben und welche Effekte diese Verschiebung auf Verhaltensintentionen ausübt. Unsere Ergebnisse zeigen, dass variable Entlohnung zum einen den gewünschten Preiseffekt erzielt: Sie löst eine Belohnungs- bzw. Bestrafungsorientierung aus und steigert die beabsichtigte Arbeitsanstrengung. Zum anderen führt variable Entlohnung zu einem Verdrängungseffekt: Verinnerlichte Normen oder die Freude an einer Tätigkeit weichen der Belohnungs- und Bestrafungsorientierung. Die beabsichtigte Arbeitsanstrengung sinkt. Wir messen diese nicht beobachtbaren Auswirkungen von Preis- und Verdrängungseffekt auf Arbeitsanstrengungen und diskutieren die Auswirkung leistungsbezogener Entlohnung auf das Arbeitsverhalten als Totaleffekt der beiden gegenläufigen Effekte. Der Beitrag trägt zur aktuellen Diskussion über die Wirkung von variablen Leistungslöhnen auf drei Arten bei. Wir zeigen: (1) Variable Leistungslöhne lösen stets simultan einen Preis- und einen Verdrängungseffekt aus. (2) Das standardökonomische Modell kommt nur dann zu korrekten Verhaltensprognosen, wenn der Preiseffekt Arbeitsanstrengungen stärker beeinflusst als der simultan wirkende Verdrängungseffekt. (3) Die Kosten variabler Löhne sind höher als in der Standardökonomik angenommen: Variable Löhne ziehen stets einen nicht beobachtbaren Verdrängungseffekt nach sich.

Crowding-Out Effekt Motivation Preiseffekt Vignettenstudie 

Summary

Ever since the first study showing that performance contingent rewards undermine people’s intrinsic motivation was published, there has been a controversy about this frequently replicated finding. The aim of this study is to examine how performance contingent rewards affect motivation and behavioural intentions. With data from a factorial survey simulating a realistic work context, we are able to show that a) performance contingent pay strengthens extrinsic motivation, that is, elicits a price effect. As a result, respondents’ behavioural intentions to perform increase. Simultaneously b) performance contingent pay weakens intrinsic motivation, that is, provokes a crowding-out effect. As a result, respondents’ behavioural intentions to perform decrease. The total effect on behavioural intentions is shown to be composed of the opposing effects of performance contingent rewards on the unobservable construct of motivation.

Key words

Crowding-Out Motivation Pay for Performance Vignette Study 

JEL Classification

J33 D23 M52 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. Alexander, Cheryl S./Becker, Henry J. (1978), Use of Vignettes in Survey-Research, in: Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. 42, S. 93–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Atkinson, John W. (1964), An Introduction to Motivation, Princeton, NJ.Google Scholar
  3. Bagozzi, Richard P./Yi, Youjae (1991), Multitrait-Multimethod Matrices in Consumer Research, in: Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 17, S. 426–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bargh, John A./Schul, Yaacov (1980), On the Cognitive Benefits of Teaching, in: Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 72, S. 593–604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barkema, Harry G. (1995), Do Job Executives Work Harder When They are Monitored?, in: Kyklos, Vol. 48, S. 19–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beck, Michael/Opp, Karl-Dieter (2001), Der faktorielle Survey und die Messung von Normen, in: Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialwissenschaften, Vol. 53, S. 283–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Benware, Carl A./Deci, Edward L. (1984), Quality of Learning with an Active versus Passive Motivational Set, in: American Educational Research Journal, Vol. 21, S. 755–765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bertrand, Marianne/Mullainathan, Sendhil (1991), Do People Mean What They Say? Implications for Subjective Survey Data, in: Economics and Social Behavior, Vol. 91, S. 67–72.Google Scholar
  9. Biddle, Stuart H./Soos, Istvan/Chatzisarantis, Janus P. (1999), Predicting physical activity intentions using a goal perspectives approach: a study of Hungarian youth, in: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, Vol. 9, S. 353–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Blumberg, Boris (1998), Das Management von Technologiekooperationen, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  11. Buskens, Vincent (1999), Social Networks and Trust, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  12. Crott, Helmut W. (1971), Experimentelle Untersuchung zum Verhandlungsverhalten in kooperativen Spielen, in: Zeitschrift fur Sozialpsychologie, Vol. 2, S. 61–74.Google Scholar
  13. De Charms, Richard (1968), Personal Causation: the Internal Affective Determinants of Behavior, New York.Google Scholar
  14. Deci, Edward L. (1971), Effects of Externally Mediated Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation, in: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 18, S. 105–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Deci, Edward L. (1975), Intrinsic Motivation, New York.Google Scholar
  16. Deci, Edward L. (1980), The Psychology of Self-Determination, Lexington, Mass.Google Scholar
  17. Deci, Edward L. (1985), Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination in Human Behavior, New York.Google Scholar
  18. Deci, Edward L./Cascio, Wayne F. (1972), Changes in Intrinsic Motivation as a Function of Negative Feedback and Threats, Paper presented at the Eastern Psychological Association, Boston, MA.Google Scholar
  19. Deci, Edward L./Eghari, Haleh/Patrick, Brian C./Leone, Dean R. (1994), Faciliating Internalization, the Self-Determination Theory Perspective, in: Journal of Personality, Vol. 62, S. 119–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Deci, Edward L./Flaste, Richard (1995), Why We Do What We Do, The Dynamics of Personal Autonomy, New York.Google Scholar
  21. Deci, Edward L./Koestner, Richard/Ryan, Richard M. (1999a), A Meta-Analytic Review of Experiments Examining the Effects of Extrinsic Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation, in: Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 125, S. 627–668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Deci, Edward L./Koestner, Richard/Ryan, Richard M. (1999b), The Undermining Effect Is a Reality After All — Extrinsic Rewards, Task Interest, and Self-Determination, Reply to Eisenberger, Pierce, and Cameron (1999) and Lepper, Henderlong, and Gingras (1999), in: Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 125, S. 692–700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Deci, Edward L./Ryan, Richard M. (1985), The General Causality Orientations Scale, Self-Determination in Personality, in: Journal of Research in Personality, Vol. 19, S. 109–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Deckop, John R./Cirka, Carol C. (2000), The Risk and Reward of a Double-Edged Sword: Effects of a Merit Pay Program on Intrinsic Motivation, in: Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Vol. 29, S. 400–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Edwards, Paul/Wright, Martin (2001), High-Involvement Work Systems and Performance Outcomes: the Strength of Variable, Contingent and Context-Bound Relationships, in: International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 12, S. 568–585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Eisenberger, Robert/Pierce, David W./Cameron, Judy (1999), Effects of Reward on Intrinsic Motivation — Negative, Neutral, and Positive: Comment on Deci, Koestner, and Ryan (1999), in: Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 125, S. 677–691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fehr, Ernst/Gächter, Simon (2002), Do Incentive Contracts Crowd Out Voluntary Cooperation? Institute for Empirical Research in Economics, in: Arbeitspapier Zurich 2002, No. 34.Google Scholar
  28. Fischbacher, Urs/Fehr, Ernst/Gächter, Simon (2001), Are People Conditionally Cooperative? Evidence from Public Good Experiments, in: Economic Letters, Vol. 71, S. 397–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Frey, Bruno S. (1990), Ökonomie ist Sozialwissenschaft, München.Google Scholar
  30. Frey, Bruno S. (1997), Markt und Motivation, Wie Preise die (Arbeits-)Moral verdrängen, München.Google Scholar
  31. Frey, Bruno S./Eichenberger, Rainer/Oberholzer-Gee, Felix (1996), The Old Lady Visits Your Backyard: A Tale of Morals and Markets, in: Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 104, S. 193–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Frey, Bruno S./Götte, Lorenz (1999), Does Pay Motivate Volunteers? Working Paper.Google Scholar
  33. Frey, Bruno S./Jegen, Reto (2001), Motivation Crowding Theory, A Survey of Empirical Evidence, in: Journal of Economic Surveys, Vol. 15, S. 589–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Frey, Bruno S./Oberholzer-Gee, Felix (1997), The Cost of Price Incentives: An Emperical Analysis of Motivation Crowding-out, in: American Economic Review, Vol. 87, S. 746–755.Google Scholar
  35. Frey, Bruno S./Osterloh, Margrit (2000), Managing Motivation, Wiesbaden.Google Scholar
  36. Frey, Bruno S./Osterloh, Margrit (1997), Sanktionen oder Seelenmassage? Motivationale Grundlagen der Unternehmensführung, in: Die Betriebswirtschaft, Vol. 57, S. 307–321.Google Scholar
  37. Frey, Bruno S./Susanne Neckermann (2006), Auszeichnungen: ein vernachlässigter Anreiz (Awards: A Neglected Incentive), in: Perspektiven der Wirtschaftspolitik, Vol. 7, S. 271–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gagné, Marylène/Deci, Edward L. (2005), Self-Determination Theory and Work Motivation, in: Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol. 26, S. 331–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gibbons, Robert (1998), Incentives in Organizations, in: The Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 12, S. 115–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gneezy, Uri/Rustichini, Aldo (2000), A Fine is a Price, in: Journal of Legal Studies, Vol. 29, S. 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gottfried, Adele E. (1990), Academic Intrinsic Motivation in Young Elementary-School-Children, in: Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 82, S. 525–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Grolnick, Wendy S./Ryan, Richard M./Deci, Edward L. (1991), Inner Resources for School Achievement: Motivational Mediators of Children’s Perceptions of their Parents, in: Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 83, S. 508–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Guest, David E. (1999), Human Resource Management: The Workers’ Verdict’, in: Human Resource Management Journal, Vol. 9, S. 5–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Harrison, Glenn W./List, John A. (2004), Field Experiments, in: Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. 42, S. 1009–1055.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Heckhausen, Heinz (1989), Motivation und Handeln, Berlin.Google Scholar
  46. Hennessy, Beth A./Amabile, Theresa/Martinage, Magret (1989), Immunizing Children Against the Negative Effects of Reward, in: Contemporary Educational Psychology, Vol. 14, S. 212–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Holmström, Bengt R./Milgrom, Paul (1994), The Firm as an Incentive System, in: American Economic Review, Vol. 84, S. 972–991.Google Scholar
  48. Hurrle, Beatrice/Kieser, Alfred (2005), Sind Key Informants verlässliche Datenlieferanten?, in: Die Betriebswirtschaft, Vol. 65, S. 584–602.Google Scholar
  49. Ichniowski, Casey/Shaw, Kathryn (2003), Beyond Incentive Pay: Insiders’ Estimates of the Value of Complementary Human Resource Management Practices, in: Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 17, S. 155–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Irlenbusch, Bernd/Sliwka, Dirk (2003), Incentives, Decision Frames and Motivation Crowding Out — An Experimental Investigation, in: Arbeitspapier Bonn 2003.Google Scholar
  51. Jordan, Paul C. (1986), Effects of Extrinsic Reward on Intrinsic Motivation: A Field Experiment, in: Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 29, S. 405–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Katz, Daniel/Kahn, Robert Louis (1966), The Social Psychology of Organizations, New York.Google Scholar
  53. Kirchgässner, Gebhard (1991), Homo Oeconomicus, Tübingen.Google Scholar
  54. Koestner, Richard/Losier, Gaëtan F. (2002), Distinguishing Three Ways of Being Internally Motivated, a Closer Look at Introjection, Identification, and Intrinsic motivation, in: Deci, Edward L./Ryan, Richard M. (Hrsg.), Handbook of Self-Determination Research, Rochester, NY, S. 101–121.Google Scholar
  55. Kunz, Alexis H./Pfaff, Dieter (2002), Agency Theory, Performance Evaluation, and the Hypothetical Construct of Intrinsic Motivation, in: Accounting, Organizations and Society, Vol. 27, S. 275–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Laux, Helmut (1990), Risiko, Anreiz und Kontrolle, Heidelberg/Berlin.Google Scholar
  57. Laux, Helmut (1999), Unternehmensrechnung, Anreiz und Kontrolle, Heidelberg/Berlin.Google Scholar
  58. Lawler, Edward E./Hall, Douglas T. (1970), Relationship of Job Characteristics to Job Involvement, Satisfaction, and Intrinsic Motivation, in: Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 54, S. 305–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lawler, Edward E. (1971), Pay and Organizational Effectiveness, New York.Google Scholar
  60. Lazear, Edward P. (1999), Personnel Economics. Past Lessons and Future Directions, in: Journal of Labor Economics, Vol. 17, S. 199–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lepper, Mark R./Greene, David (1978), The Hidden Costs of Reward, New Perspectives on the Psychology of Human Motivation, Hillsdale, NY.Google Scholar
  62. Lepper, Mark R./Henderlong, Jennifer/Gingras, Isabelle (1999), Understanding the Effects of Extrinsic Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation — Uses and Abuses of Meta-Analysis: Comment on Deci, Koestner, and Ryan (1999), in: Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 125, S. 669–676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lindenberg, Siegwart (2001), Intrinsic Motivation in a New Light, in: Kyklos, Vol. 54, S. 317–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. MacDuffie, John P. (1995), Human-Resource Bundles and Manufacturing Performance — Organizational Logic and Flexible Production Systems in the World Auto Industry, in: Industrial & Labor Relations Review, Vol. 48, S. 197–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Mintz, Albert (1951), Non-addaptive group behavior, in: Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Vol. 46, S. 150–159.Google Scholar
  66. Opp, Karl-Dieter (1969), Das Experiment in den Sozialwissenschaften — Einige Probleme und Vorschläge für seine effektive Verwendung, in: Zeitschrift für die gesamte Staatswissenschaft, Vol. 125, S. 106–122.Google Scholar
  67. Organ, Dennis W. (1988), Organizational Citizenship Behavior: the Good Soldier Syndrome, Lexington, Mass.Google Scholar
  68. Organ, Dennis W. (1990), The Motivational Basis of Organizational Citizenship Behavior, in: Cummings, Larry L./Staw, Barry M. (Hrsg.), Research in Organizational Behavior, Vol. 12, S. 43–72.Google Scholar
  69. Osterloh, Margit (2007), Psychologische Ökonomik: Integration statt Konfrontation. Die Bedeutung der Psychologischen Ökonomik für die BWL, in: Gerum, Elmar/Schreyögg, Georg (Hrsg.), Zukunft der Betriebswirtschaftslehre — Bestandsaufnahme und Perspektiven, zfbf-Sonderheft 56/07, Düsseldorf/Frankfurt am Main, S. 86–109.Google Scholar
  70. Osterloh, Margit/Frey, Bruno S. (2000), Motivation, Knowledge Transfer, and Organizational Forms, in: Organization Science, Vol. 11, S. 538–550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Osterloh, Margit/Weibel, Antoinette (2006). Investition Vertrauen. Prozesse der Vertrauensentwicklung in Organisationen, Wiesbaden.Google Scholar
  72. Peacock, Mark S./Schefczyk, Michael/Schaber, Peter (2005), The Indispensability of Motives: Thoughts on Ernst Fehr and Altruism, in: Analyse & Kritik, Vol. 27, S. 188–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Picot, Arnold (1975), Experimentelle Organisationsforschung — Methodische und wissenschaftstheoretische Grundlagen, Wiesbaden.Google Scholar
  74. Pintrich, Paul R./Degroot, Elisabeth V. (1990), Motivational and Self-Regulated Learning Components of Classroom Academic-Performance, in: Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 82, S. 33–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Podsakoff, Philip M./MacKenzie, Scott B./Paine, Julie B./Bachrach, Daniel G. (2000), Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: A Critical Review of the Theoretical and Empirical Literature and Suggestions for Future Research, in: Journal of Management, Vol. 26, S. 513–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Podsakoff, Philip M./Ahearne, Michael/MacKenzie, Scott B. (1997), Organizational Citizenship Behavior and the Quantity and Quality of Work Group Performance, in: Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 82, S. 262–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Prendergast, Canice (1999), The Provision of Incentives in Firms, in: Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. 37, S. 7–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Riegler, Christian (2000), Hierarchische Anreizsysteme im wertorientierten Management, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  79. Rooks, Gerrit/Raub, Werner/Selten, Robert/Tazelaar, Frits (2000), How Inter-Firm Co-Operation Depends on Social Embeddedness: A Vignette Study, in: Acta Sociologica, Vol. 43, S. 123–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Rossi, Peter H./Wright, James D./Anderson, Andy B. (1983), Handbook of Survey Research, New York.Google Scholar
  81. Rummel, Amy/Feinberg, Richard (1988), Cognitive Evaluation Theory: A Meta-analytic Review of the Literature, in: Social Behaviour and Personality, Vol. 16, S. 147–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Ryan, Richard M./Connell, James P. (1989), Perceived Locus of Causality and Internalization — Examining Reasons for Acting in 2 Domains, in: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 57, S. 749–761.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Sliwka, Dirk (2003), Anreize, Motivationsverdrängung und Prinzipal-Agenten-Theorie, in: Die Betriebswirtschaft, Vol. 63, S. 293–312.Google Scholar
  84. Starmer, Chris (1999), Experimental Economics: Hard Science or Wasteful Tinkering?, in: The Economic Journal, Vol. 109, S. 5–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Staw, Barry M. (1975), Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation, Morristown, NJ.Google Scholar
  86. Stigler, George/Becker, Gary S. (1977), De Gustibus Non Est Disputandum, in: American Economic Review, Vol. 67, S. 76–90.Google Scholar
  87. Tang, Shuhua H./Hall, Vernon C. (1995), The overjustification effect: A Meta-analysis, in: Application of Cognitive Psychology, Vol 9, S. 364–404.Google Scholar
  88. Teichert, Thorsten (2001), Nutzenschätzung in Conjoint-Analysen, Wiesbaden.Google Scholar
  89. Thorndike, Edward L. (1927), The Law of Effect, in: American Journal of Psychology, Vol. 39, S. 212–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Vallerand, Robert J./Reid, Greg (1984), On the Causal Effect of Perceived Competence on Intrinsic Motivation. A Test of Cognitive Evaluation Theory, in: Journal of Sport Psychology, Vol. 6, S. 94–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Wiersma, Uco J. (1992), The Effects of Extrinsic Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation: A Meta-analysis, in: Journal of Occupational Organizational Psychology, Vol. 65, S. 101–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Schmalenbach-Gesellschaft.eV. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Antoinette Weibel
    • 1
  • Katja Rost
    • 1
  • Margit Osterloh
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Organisation und UnternehmenstheorienUniversität ZürichZürichSchweiz

Personalised recommendations