Advertisement

Erfolgsfaktor Internationalisierung: Eine empirische Analyse der Breite und Geschwindigkeit der internationalen Markteinführung pharmazeutischer Innovationen von Folgern

  • Marc Fischer
  • Michel Clement
Internationalisierung

Zusammenfassung

Obgleich international tätige Unternehmen in der globalen Ökonomie allgegenwärtig sind, lassen sich in der theoretischen und empirischen betriebswirtschaftlichen Forschung nur wenige Beiträge finden, die die Vor- und Nachteile internationaler Markteintrittsstrategien empirisch untersuchen. Dieser Aufsatz zeigt, wie (1) die Breite der Internationalisierung und (2) die Geschwindigkeit des internationalen Markteintritts direkt und moderierend den Marktanteil neuer Produkte in der pharmazeutischen Industrie beeinflussen. Die Ergebnisse deuten darauf hin, dass Manager, die ihre Neuprodukte bereits in mehrere große internationale Märkte eingeführt haben, einen höheren Marktanteil in den neuen Ländermärkten realisieren können. Erreicht wird dieser Effekt vor allem durch die Reduktion des Nachteils eines späten Markteintritts und durch eine höhere Wirkung des Marketings. Für Manager von Folgerprodukten bedeuten diese Erkenntnisse, dass eine sequenzielle Markteinführungsstrategie (Wasserfallstrategie) in große, bereits von Wettbewerbern erschlossene, internationale Märkte deutlich mehr Erfolgspotenzial bieten kann, als eine schnelle, parallele Markteinführung (Sprinklerstrategie).

Internationalisierung Ökonometrische Modelle Pioniervorteil 

Summary

This paper analyzes how the scope and speed of internationalization have direct and indirect effects on market share. The analysis suggests that managers benefit from a broad but slow introduction of the new product into many large national markets. The expected market share in the focal product market will be higher under such circumstances. This positive effect is due to a reduction of systematic market share disadvantage that arises from late market entry and an increase in the efficiency of marketing spending. We provide arguments for these effects that are based on consumer and organizational learning theories.

Keywords

Econometrics Internationalization Order of Entry Effects 

JEL-Classification

C33 F23 L13 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. Anderson, Erin/Gatignon, Hubert (1986), Modes of Foreign Entry: A Transaction Cost Analysis and Propositions, in: Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 17, Fall, S. 1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Argote, Linda/McEvily, Bill/Reagans, Ray (2003), Managing Knowledge in Organizations: An Integrative Framework and Review of Emerging Themes, in: Management Science, Vol. 49, S. 571–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Backhaus, Klaus/Büschken, Joachim/Voeth, Markus (2001), Internationales Marketing, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  4. Bamberger, Ingolf/Wrona, Thomas (1996), Der Ressourcenansatz und seine Bedeutung für die strategische Unternehmensführung, in: zfbf, 48. Jg., S. 130–153.Google Scholar
  5. Banerjee, Abhijit V. (1992), A Simple Model of Herd Behavior, in: Quarterly Journal of Economics, 57. Jg., S. 797–817.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barkema, Harry G./Bell, John H. J./Pennings, Johannes M. (1996), Foreign Entry, Cultural Barriers and Learning, in: Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 17, S. 151–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barkema, Harry G./Vermeulen, Freek (1998), International Expansion through Start-Up or Aquisition: A Learning Perspective, in: Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 41, S. 7–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bassen, Alexander/Behman, Michael/Gilbert, Dirk Ulrich (2001), Internationalisierung des Mittelstands. Ergebnisse einer empirischen Studie zum Internationalisierungsverhalten deutscher mittelständischer Unternehmen, in: Zeitschrift für Betriebswirtschaft, 71. Jg., S. 413–432.Google Scholar
  9. Bauer, Hans H./Fischer, Marc (2000), Product life cycle patterns for pharmaceuticals and their impact on R&D profitability of late mover products, in: International Business Review, Vol. 9, S. 703–725.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bayus, Barry B./Jain, Sanjay/Rao, Ambar G. (1997), Too Little, Too Early: Introduction Timing and New Product Performance in the Personal Digital Assistant Industry, in: Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 34, S. 50–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bayus, Barry L. (1997), Speed-to-Market and New Product Performance Trade-Offs, in: Journal of Product Innovation Management, Vol. 14, S. 485–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Berndt, Ernst R./Bhattacharjya, A./Mishol, D.N./Arcelus, A./Lasky, T. (1995), Variety, Order of Entry and Marketing Efforts: An Analysis of the Diffusion of New Antidepressant Medications, Working Paper am MIT, Boston.Google Scholar
  13. Bikhchandani, Sushil/Hirshleifer, David/Welch, Ivo (1998), Learning from the behavior of others: Comformity, fads, and informational cascades, in: Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 12, S. 151–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Boulding, William/Christen, Markus (2003), Sustainable Pioneering Advantage? Profit Implications of Market Entry Order, in: Marketing Science, Vol. 22, S. 371–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bowman, Douglas/Gatignon, Hubert (1996), Order of Entry as a Moderator of the Effect of the Marketing Mix on Market Share, in: Marketing Science, Vol. 15, S. 222–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. BPI (2005), Pharma Fakten, Bundesverband der Pharmazeutischen Industrie, Frankfurt.Google Scholar
  17. Brockhoff, Klaus (1998), Forschung und Entwicklung. Planung und Kontrolle, Stuttgart, Jena.Google Scholar
  18. Bühner, Rolf (1987), Assessing international diversification of West German corporations, in: Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 8, S. 25–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Carbonell, Pilar/Rodriguez, Ana Isabel (2006), The impact of market charakteristics and innovation speed on perceptions of positional advantage and new product performance, in: International Journal of Research in Marketing, Vol. 23, S. 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chintagunta, Pradeep K./Desiraju, Ramarao (2005), Strategic Pricing and Detailing Behavior in International Markets, in: Marketing Science, Vol. 24, S. 67–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Clement, Michel/Litfin, Thorsten/Vanini, Sven (1998), 1st die Pionierrolle ein Erfolgsfaktor? Eine kritische Analyse der empirischen Forschungsergebnisse, in: Zeitschrift für Betriebswirtschaft, 68. Jg., S. 205–226.Google Scholar
  22. Dekimpe, Marnik G./Parker, Philip M./Sarvary, Miklos (2000), Global Diffusion of Technological Innovations: A Coupled Hazard Approach, in: Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 37, S. 47–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Delios, Andrew/Beamish, Paul W. (1999), Geographic Scope, Product Diversification, and the Corporate Performance of Japanese Firms, in: Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 20, S. 711–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Elberse, Anita/Eliashberg, Jehoshua (2003), Demand and Supply Dynamics for Sequentially Released Products in International Markets: The Case of Motion Pictures, in: Marketing Science, Vol. 22, S. 329–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Erickson, Gary/Jacobson, Robert (1992), Gaining Comparative Advantage Through Discretionary Expenditures: The Returns to R&D and Advertising, in: Management Science, Vol. 38, S. 1264–1279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Farley, John U./Lehmann, Donald R. (1994), Cross-national Laws and Differences in Market Responses, in: Management Science, Vol. 40, S. 111–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fischer, Marc (2001), Produktlebenszyklen und Werttbewerbsdynamik, Grundlagen für die ökonomische Bewertung von Markteintrittsstrategien, Wiesbaden.Google Scholar
  28. Ganesh, Jaishankar/Kumar, V./Subramanian, Velavan (1997), Learning Effect in Multinational Diffusion of Consumer Durables: An Exploratory Investigation, in: Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 25, S. 214–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gatignon, Hubert/Eliashberg, Jehoshua/Robertson, Thomas S. (1989), Modeling Multinational Diffusion Patterns: An Efficient Methodology, in: Marketing Science, Vol. 8, S. 231–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gerpott, Thorsten J./Walter, Andreas (1999), Internationale Diversifikation, F&E-Intensität und Erfolg von großen Industrieunternehmen, in: zfbf, 51. Jg., S. 1100–1122.Google Scholar
  31. Gielens, Katrijn/Dekimpe, Marnik G. (2001), Do international entry decisions of retail chains matter in the long run?, in: International Journal of Research in Marketing, Vol. 18, S. 235–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gielens, Katrijn/Steenkamp, Jan-Benedict E. M. (2004), What drives new product success? An Investigation Across Products and Countries, MSI Working Paper 04-108, Marketing Science Institute, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  33. Gierl, Heribert/Helm, Roland (2000), Optimale Präsenz des Vertriebs auf Auslandsmärkten, in: Zeitschrift für Betriebswirtschaft, 70. Jg., S. 1063–1082.Google Scholar
  34. Goldenberg, Jacob/Libai, Barak/Muller, Eitan (2001), Talk of the Network: A Complex Systems Look at the Underlying Process of Word of Mouth, in: Marketing Letters, Vol. 12, S. 211–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gönül, Füsun F./Carter, Franklin/Petrova, Elina/Srinivasan, Kannan (2001), Promotion of Prescription Drugs and Its Impact on Physicians’ Choice Behavior, in: Journal of Marketing, Vol. 65, S. 79–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Greb, Robert/Hassan, Ali (2001), Die F&E-Produktivität von global verteilten F&E-Unternehmen, in: Die Betriebswirtschaft, 61. Jg., S. 462–477.Google Scholar
  37. Greene, William H. (2004), Econometric Analysis, 4. Aufl., Upper Saddle River, NJ.Google Scholar
  38. Hanssens, Dominique M./Parsons, Leonard J./Schultz, Randall L. (2002), Market Response Models, Econometric and Time Series Analysis.Google Scholar
  39. Hauschildt, Jürgen (2004), Innovationsmanagement, München.Google Scholar
  40. Hausman, Jerry A./Taylor, William E. (1981), Panel Data and Unobservable Effects, in: Econometrica, Vol. 49, S. 1377–1398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hoch, Stephen J./Deighton, John (1989), Managing what consumers learn from experience, in: Journal of Marketing, Vol. 53, S. 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hofstede, Frenkel Ter/Steenkamp, Jan-Benedict E.M./Wedel, Michel (1999), International Market Segmentation Based on Consumer-Product Relations, in: Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 36, S. 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Homburg, Christian/Kiedaisch, Ingo (1999), Die Qualität internationaler Geschäftsbeziehungen: Theoretische Überlegungen und empirische Befunde, in: Die Betriebswirtschaft, 59. Jg., S. 22–43.Google Scholar
  44. Homburg, Christian/Krohmer, Harley (2003), Marketingmanagement, Wiesbaden.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Huff, Leonard C./Robinson, William T. (1994), The Impact of the Market Pioneers Leadtime on Market Share, in: Management Science, Vol. 40, S. 1370–1377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ingram, P./Baum, J.A.C. (1997), Opportunity and constraint: Organizations’ learning from the operating and competitive experience of industries, in: Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 19, S. 75–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Jacobson, Robert (1990), Unobservable Effects and Business Performance, in: Marketing Science, Vol. 9, S. 74–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Jayachandran, Satish/Gimeno, Javier/Varadarajan, P Rajan (1999), The Theory of Multimarket Competition: A Synthesis and Implications for Marketing Strategy, in: Journal of Marketing, Vol. 63, S. 49–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Johanson, Jan/Vahlne, Jan-Erik (1977), The Internationalization Process of the Firm — A Model of Knowledge Development and Increasing Foreign Market Commitments, in: Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 8, S. 23–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kalish, Shlomo/Mahajan, Vijay/Muller, Eitan (1995), Waterfall and sprinkler new-product strategies in competitive global markets, in: International Journal of Research in Marketing, Vol. 12, S. 105–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kalyanaram, Gurumurthy/Urban, Glen L. (1992), Dynamic Effects of the Order of Entry on Market Share, Trial Penetration, and Repeat Purchases for Frequently Purchased Consumer Goods, in: Marketing Science, Vol. 11, S. 235–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kerin, Roger A./Varadarajan, P. Rajan/Peterson, Robert A. (1992), First-Mover Advantage: A Synthesis, Conceptual Framework, and Research Propositions, in: Journal of Marketing, Vol. 56, S. 33–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kogut, Bruce/Singh, Habir (1988), The Effect of National Culture on the Choice of Entry Mode, in: Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 19, S. 411–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kreutzer, Ralf (1989), Global Marketing — Konzeption eines länderübergreifenden Marketing, Wiesbaden.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kuester, Sabine/Homburg, Christian/Robertson, Thomas S. (1999), Retaliatory Behavior to New Product Entry, in: Journal of Marketing, Vol. 63, S. 90–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Leeflang, Peter S. H./van Raaij, W. Fred (1995), The changing consumer in the European Union: A “meta-analysis”, in: International Journal of Research in Marketing, Vol. 12, S. 373–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Li, Jiatao (1995), Foreign Entry and Survival: Effects of Strategic Choices on Performance in International Markets, in: Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 16, S. 333–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lieberman, Marvin B./Montgomery, David B. (1988), First-Mover Advantages, in: Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 9, Special Issue, S. 41–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Manchanda, Puneet/Honka, Elisabeth (2005), The Effects and Role of Direct-to-Physician Marketing in the Pharmaceutical Industry: An Integrative Review, in: Yale Journal of Health Policy, Law and Ethics, Vol. 2, S. 785–822.Google Scholar
  60. Mascarenhas, Briance (1992), First-mover effects in multiple dynamic markets, in: Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 13, S. 237–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Meffert, Heribert (1989), Globalisierungsstrategien und ihr Umsetzung im internationalen Wettbewerb, in: Die Betriebswirtschaft, S. 445–463.Google Scholar
  62. Mitra, Debanjan/Golder, Peter N. (2002), Whose Culture Matters? Near-Market Knowledge and its Impact on Foreign Market Entry Timing, in: Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 39, S. 350–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mizik, Natalie/Jacobson, Robert (2004), Are physicians “easy marks”? Quantifying the effects of detailing and sampling on new prescriptions, in: Management Science, Vol. 50, S. 1704–1715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Narasimhan, Chakravarthi/Zhang, Z. John (2000), Market Entry Strategy Under Firm Heterogeneity and Asymmetric Payoffs, in: Marketing Science, Vol. 19, S. 313–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Narayanan, Sridhar/Desiraju, Ramarao/Chintagunta, Pradeep K. (2004), Return on Investment Implications for Pharmaceutical Promotional Expenditures: The Role of Marketing-Mix Interactions, in: Journal of Marketing, Vol. 68, S. 90–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Pan, Yigang/Chi, Peter S. K. (1999), Financial Performance and Survival of Multinational Corporations in China, in: Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 20, S. 359–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Pausenberger, Ehrenfried/Nöcker, Ralf (2000), Kooperative Formen der Auslandsmarktbearbeitung, in: zfbf, 52. Jg., S. 393–412.Google Scholar
  68. Rüdiger, Mathias/Vanini, Sven (1998), Das Tacit knowledge-Phänomen und seine Implikationen für das Innovationsmanagement, in: Die Betriebswirtschaft, 58. Jg., S. 467–480.Google Scholar
  69. Schmalensee, Richard (1982), Product Differentiation Advantages of Pioneering Brands, in: American Economic Review, Vol. 72, S. 349–365.Google Scholar
  70. Schuhe-Hillen, Gerd/Ganz, Axel/Althans, Jürgen (2001), Strategien im internationalen Verlagsmarketing, in: Die Betriebswirtschaft, 61. Jg., S. 478–492.Google Scholar
  71. Shankar, Venkatesh/Carpenter, Gregory S./Krishnamurthi, Lakshman (1998), Late Mover Advantage: How Innovative Late Entrants Outsell Pioneers, in: Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 35, S. 54–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Shankar, Venkatesh/Carpenter, Gregory S./Krishnamurthi, Lakshman (1999), The Advantages of Entry in the Growth Stage of the Product Life Cycle: An Empirical Analysis, in: Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 36, S. 269–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Stippel, Peter (2004), I’m lovin’ it fresh, in: Absatzwirtschaft, 11. Jg., S. 6–11.Google Scholar
  74. Szymanski, David M./Bharadwaj, Sundar G./Varadarajan, P. Rajan (1993), Standardization versus Adaptation of International Marketing Strategy: An Empirical Investigation, in: Journal of Marketing, Vol. 57, S. 1–17.Google Scholar
  75. Takada, Hirokazu/Jain, Dipak C. (1991), Cross-National Analysis of Diffusion of Consumer Durables in Pacific Rim Countries, in: Journal of Marketing, Vol. 55, S. 48–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Tallman, Stephen/Li, Jiatao (1996), Effects of International Diversity and Product Diversity on the Performance of Multinational Firms, in: Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 39, S. 179–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Talukdar, Debabrata/Sudhir, K./Ainslie, Andrew (2002), Investigating New Product Diffusion Across Products and Countries, in: Marketing Science, Vol. 21, S. 97–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Tellis, Gerard J./Stremersch, Stefan/Yin, Eden (2003), The International Takeoff of New Products: The Role of Economics, Culture, and Country Innovativeness, in: Marketing Science, Vol. 22, S. 188–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Urban, Glenn L./Carter, Theresa/Gaskin, Steven/Mucha, Zofia (1986), Market Share Rewards to Pioneering Brands: An Empirical Analysis and Strategic Implications, in: Management Science, Vol. 32, S. 645–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Vakratsas, Demetrios/Rao, Ram C./Kalyanaram, Gurumurthy (2003), An Empirical Analysis of Follower Entry Timing Decisions, in: Marketing Letters, Vol. 14, S. 203–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Vermeulen, Freek/Barkema, Harry G. (2002), Pace, Rhythm, and Scope: Process Dependence in Building a Profitable Multinational Corporation, in: Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 23, S. 637–653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. von der Oelsnitz, Dietrich (2000), Eintrittstiming und Eintrittserfolg: eine kritische Analyse der empirischen Methodik, in: Die Unternehmung, 54. Jg., S. 199–213.Google Scholar
  83. Wilson, James Q. (1967), Innovation in Organization: Notes Toward a Theory, in: Thompson, James D. (Hrsg.): Approaches to Organizational Design, Pittsburgh, S. 193–218.Google Scholar
  84. Zentes, Joachim/Swoboda, Bernhard (1999), Motive und Erfolgsgrößen internationaler Kooperationen mittelständischer Unternehmen, in: Die Betriebswirtschaft, 59. Jg., S. 44–60.Google Scholar
  85. Zou, Shaoming/Cavusgil, S. Tamer (2002), The GMS: A Broad Conceptualization of Global Marketing Strategy and Its Effect on Firm Performance, in: Journal of Marketing, Vol. 66, S. 40–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Schmalenbach-Gesellschaft.eV. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Lehrstuhl für Innovation, Neue Medien und Marketing, Institut für InnovationsforschungChristian-Albrechts-Universität zu KielKielDeutschland
  2. 2.Lehrstuhl für Marketing und Medienmanagement, Institut für Marketing und MedienUniversität HamburgHamburgDeutschland

Personalised recommendations