Effect of Primula root and other plant extracts on infection structure formation of Phyllosticta ampelicida (asexual stage of Guignardia bidwellii) and on black rot disease of grapevine in the greenhouse
- 25 Downloads
The paper describes in vitro and in vivo experiments with extracts from Primula root and Hedera helix aimed at characterizing their effect on Phyllosticta ampelicida (teleomorph: Guignardia bidwellii), the causal agent of black rot disease of grapevine. In pre-tests, collodion membranes placed over water agar were determined to be better suited for spore germination and appressoria formation than cellophane sheets. On collodion membranes placed over water agar amended with different agents, the fungicide Polyram® WG (metiram) inhibited germination of the conidia of P. a m -pelicida completely. Inhibition by the extract from Primula root was similarly high and stronger than by the extract from H. helix. Primula root extract also inhibited conidial germination on grape leaves. In greenhouse tests, protective application of the extracts of H. helix and Primula root at concentrations of 1.0 and 0.5% reliably provided control of black rot with efficacy > 90%, which was in the same range as protection provided by the saponin-containing reference extracts from Sapindus mukorossi, Chenopodium quinoa and Quillaja spec.. In further tests, protective and curative activity (i.e. application of treatments 24 h before or 24 h after pathogen inoculation) was compared. The agents tested were extracts from Primula root and H. helix, Polyram® WG, the resistance inducer BION® 50 WG (acibenzolar-S-methyl) and Frutogard®, a product containing an extract from brown algae and phosphonate. When applied protectively, all treatments reduced the disease severity. The efficacy of primula root extract was similar to that of Polyram® WG, which provided complete control. Curative application caused a much lower reduction in disease, which was most pronounced for the Frutogard® treatment.
Key wordsVitis vinifera organic farming copper replacement acibenzolar-S-methyl Hedera helix Frutogard
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Anonymous, 2004. Guidelines for the efficacy evaluation of fungicides. Plasmopara viticola. EPPO, PP 1/31(3).Google Scholar
- Bedir E, Kirmizipekmez H, Sticher O & Calis I, 2000. Triterpene saponins from the fruits of Hedera helix. Phyto-chemistry 53, 905–909.Google Scholar
- Bosshard E, 1992. Effect of ivy (Hedera helix) leaf extract against apple scap and mildew. Acta Phytopathol Hun 27, 135–140.Google Scholar
- Caltrider PG, 1961. Growth and sporulation of Guignardia bidwellii. Phytopathology 51, 860–863.Google Scholar
- De Lucca AJ, Klich M, Boue S, Cleveland TE, Sien T & Walsh TJ, 2008. Fungicidal activity of plant saponin CAY-1 for fungi isolated from diseased Vitis fruit and stems. Am J Enol Viticult 59, 67–72.Google Scholar
- Grosman J, 2005. Bilan phytosanitaire: de la vigne en 2005. Phytoma 587, 18–23.Google Scholar
- MacHardy WE, 1996. Apple Scab. Biology, Epidemiology and Management. APS Press, St. Paul, MN. 545 pp.Google Scholar
- Loskill B, Molitor D, Koch E, Harms M, Berkelmann-Löhnertz B, Hoffmann C, Kortekamp A, Porten M, Louis F & Maixner M, 2009. Abschlussbericht: Strategien zur Regulation der Schwarzfäule (Guignardia bidwellii) im ökologischen Wein-bau (Management of black rot (Guignardia bidwellii) in organic viticulture). http://orgprints.org/17072/.
- Molitor D, 2009. Biologie und Bekämpfung der Schwarzfäule (Guignardia bidwellii) an Weinreben. Dissertation, Geisen-heimer Berichte Bd. 65. Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Forschungsanstalt Geisenheim, Geisenheim.Google Scholar
- Molitor D, Baus O & Berkelmann-Löhnertz B, 2011. Protective and curative grape black rot control potential of pyraclos-trobin and myclobutanil. J Plant Dis Protect 118, 61–187.Google Scholar
- Molitor D, Heibertshausen D, Baus O, Loskill B, Maixner M & Berkelmann-Löhnertz B, 2010. Einsatz eines Sapindus mukorossi-Extraktes zur Regulierung von pilzlichen Patho-genen an Weinreben–eine Alternative für den ökolo-gischen Rebschutz? J Kulturpflanzen 62, 444–450.Google Scholar
- Pfeiffer B, Alt S, Hein B, Schulz C & Kollar A, 2002. Investigations on alternative substances for control of apple scab — results from conidia germination tests and experiments with plant extracts. 11th International Conference on Cultivation Technique and Phytopathological Problems in Organic Fruit-Growing. Proceedings of the Conference, Weinsberg, Germany, 3–5 February 2004.Google Scholar
- Ramsdell DC & Milholland RD, 1988. Black Rot. Pages 15–17 in: RC Pearson and AC Goheen (eds.). Compendium of Grape Diseases. American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, Minnesota.Google Scholar
- Ruess W, Mueller K, Knauf-Beiter G, Kunz W & Staub T, 1996. Plant activtor CGA245704: an innovative approach for disease control in cereals and tobacco. Proc Brighton Crop Protection Conf, Vol. 2: 53–60.Google Scholar
- Solntsev MK, Karavaev VA, Yurina EV, Kuznetsov AM, Polyakova IB & Frantsev VV, 2002. Stimulant effect of plant activator ASM on photosynthesis and its inhibitory effect on pathogenic fungi. In: Taborsky V, Polak J, Lebeda A & Kudela V (eds.): Plant Protection Science Volume 38, Special Issue 2, 497–501.Google Scholar
- Tomoioaga L & Comsa M, 2010. The strategy of optimization for combat the black rot of vine (Guignardia bidwellii), in the ecoclimatic conditions from vineyard Târnave. Bull Univ of Agric Sci Hort 67, 500.Google Scholar
- Travis J, Hed B & Muza A, 2005. Control of black rot in organic grape production systems. Research Report to the New York Wine/Grape Foundation, The Grape Production Research Fund and The Viticulture Consortium-East.Google Scholar
- Ullrich CI, Kleespies RG, Enders M & Koch E, 2009. Biology of the black rot pathogen, Guignardia bidwellii, its development in susceptible leaves of grapevine Vitis vinifera. J Kulturpflanzen 61, 82–90.Google Scholar