Advertisement

Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection

, Volume 118, Issue 6, pp 214–221 | Cite as

Evaluation of non-chemical seed treatment methods for control of Alternaria brassicicola on cabbage seeds

  • Tahsein AmeinEmail author
  • Sandra A. I. Wright
  • Mariann Wikström
  • Eckhard Koch
  • Annegret Schmitt
  • Dietrich Stephan
  • Marga Jahn
  • Federico Tinivella
  • M. Lodovica Gullino
  • Gustaf Forsberg
  • Sigrid Werner
  • Jan van der Wolf
  • Steven P. C. Groot
Article

Abstract

Due to the lack of foliar fungicide use, the organic production of Brassica seeds free of Alternaria spp. is difficult. Therefore, effective seed treatments certified for use in organic farming are needed to eradicate or at least effectively reduce the seed-borne inoculum. We here report results of greenhouse and field experiments in which non-chemical seed treatments were tested for control of A. brassicicola on cabbage seeds naturally infested with the pathogen. In greenhouse experiments, significant improvements were obtained by seed treatment with some commercialised and experimental microbial biocontrol agents, an emulsion of thyme oil in water (0.1%) and by the tested physical seed treatments methods (i.e. hot water, aerated steam and electron seed treatment). Resistance inducers tended to increase the percentage of healthy plants, but the effects were statistically not significant. Generally the combination of physical treatments with the effective agents did not result in improved performance. Positive effects on crop establishment and yield by the same treatments were also observed in field tests. Overall the results indicate that several options for non-chemical control of A. brassicicola on Brassica seeds exist that are comparable in efficacy to the chemical standard Aatiram (active ingredient thiram) used in this study.

Key words

Biocontrol organic farming physical seed treatments plant extract seed-borne pathogens 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Amein T, Wikström M, Schmitt A, Koch E, van der Wolf J, Groot SPC, Forsberg G, Werner S, Krauthausen H-J, Kromphardt C, Jahn M & Wright SAI, 2006. Non-chemical methods of seed treatments for control of seed-borne pathogens on vegetables. Pages 412–413 in C.B. Andersen, L. Elsgaard, S. Sondergaard & G. Hansen (eds.) Proceedings of the European Joint Organic Congress — Organic Farming and European Rural Development.Google Scholar
  2. Anonymous, 2000. Internationale Vorschriften für die Prüfung von Saatgut 1999. Seed Sci Technol, Supplement. 357 p.Google Scholar
  3. Forsberg G, Andersson S & Johnsson L, 2002. Evaluation of hot, humid air seed treatment in thin layers and fluidized beds for seed pathogen sanitation. J Plant Dis Protect 109, 357–370.Google Scholar
  4. Humpherson-Jones FM, 1988. Alternaria brassicae (Berk.) Sacc. & A. brassicicola (Schwein.) Wiltshire. Pages 366–368 in Smith, I.A., J. Dunez, R.A. Lelliott, D.H. Phillips, S.A. Archer (eds.): European Handbook of Plant Diseases. Oxford, UK. Blackwell Scientific Publications.Google Scholar
  5. Jahn M, Röder O & Tigges J, 2005. Die Elektronenbehandlung von Getreidesaatgut — Zusammenfassende Wertung der Freilandergebnisse, pp. 7–61; Electron treatment of cereal crop seeds — Overview and appraisal of field trials, pp. 66–126. Mitteilungen aus der Biologischen Bundesanstalt für Land- und Forstwirtschaft Berlin-Dahlem. 399, 126 p.Google Scholar
  6. Johnsson L, Hökeberg M & Gerhardson B, 1998. Performance of the Pseudomonas chlororaphis biocontrol agent MA 342 against cereal seed-borne diseases in field experiments. Eur J Plant Pathol 104, 701–711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Koch E, Schmitt A, Stephan D, Kromphardt C, Jahn M, Krauthausen H-J, Forsberg G, Werner S, Amein T, Wright SAI, Tinivella F, Gullino ML, Roberts SJ, van der Wolf J & Groot SPC, 2010. Evaluation of non-chemical seed treatment methods for the control of Alternaria dauci and A. radicina on carrot seeds. Eur J Plant Pathol 127, 99–112.Google Scholar
  8. Köhl J, van Tongeren CAM, Groenenboom-de Haas BH, van Hoof RA, Driessen R & van der Heijden L, 2010. Epidemiology of dark leaf spot caused by Alternaria brassicicola and A. brassicae in organic seed production of cauliflower. Plant Pathol 59, 358–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kubota M, Abiko K & Yanagisawa Y, 2006. Frequency of Alternaria brassicicola in commercial cabbage seeds in Japan. J Gen Plant Pathol 72, 197–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Minuto A, Minuto G, Migheli Q, Mocioni M & Gullino ML, 1997. Effect of antagonistic Fusarium spp. and of different commercial biofungicide formulations on Fusarium wilt of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Crop Protection 16, 765–769.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Nega E, Ulrich R, Werner S & Jahn M, 2003. Hot water treatment of vegetable seed — an alternative seed treatment method to control seed-borne pathogens in organic farming. J Plant Dis Protect 110, 220–234.Google Scholar
  12. Pichard B & Thouvenot D, 1999. Effect of Bacillus polymyxa seed treatments on control of black-rot and damping-off of cauliflower. Seed Sci Technol 27, 455–465.Google Scholar
  13. Pryor BM, Davis RM & Gilbertson RL, 1994. Detection and eradication of Alternaria radicina on carrot seed. Plant Dis 78, 452–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Schimmer FC, 1953. Alternaria brassicicola on summer cauliflower seed. Plant Pathol 2, 16–17.Google Scholar
  15. Schmitt A, Koch E, Stephan D, Kromphardt C, Jahn M, Krauthausen H-J, Forsberg G, Werner S, Amein T, Wright SAI, Tinivella F, van der Wolf J & Groot S PC, 2009. Evaluation of non-chemical seed treatment methods for the control of seed-borne infections by Phoma valerianellae on lamb’s lettuce. J Plant Dis Protect 116, 200–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Sivapalan A, 1993. Fungi associated with broccoli seed and evaluation of fungal antagonists and fungicides for the control of seed-borne Alternaria brassicicola. Seed Sci Technol 21, 237–245.Google Scholar
  17. Strandberg JO, 1984. Efficacy of fungicides against persistence of Alternaria dauci on carrot seed. Plant Dis 68, 39–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Šegvic Klaric M, Kosalec I, Mastelic J, Pieckova E & Pepeljnak S, 2007. Antifungal activity of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) essential oil and thymol against moulds from damp dwellings. Lett Appl Microbiol 44, 35–42.Google Scholar
  19. Tahvonen R, 1979. Seed-borne fungi on cruciferous cultivated plants in Finland and their importance in seedling raising. J Agr Sci Finland 51, 327–379.Google Scholar
  20. Tahvonen R & Avikainen H, 1987. The biological control of seed-borne Alternaria brassicicola of cruciferous plants with a powdery preparation of Streptomyces sp. J Agr Sci Finland 59, 199–208.Google Scholar
  21. Tinivella F, Hirata LM, Celan A, Wright SAI, Amein T, Schmitt A, Koch E, van der Wolf J, Groot, SPC, Stephan D, Garibaldi A, Gullino ML, 2009. Control of seed-borne pathogens on legumes by microbial and other alternative seed treatments. Eur J Plant Pathol 123, 139–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Valkonen JPT & Koponen H, 1990. The seed-borne fungi of Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis), their pathogenicity and control. Plant Pathol 39, 510–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Van den Bulk RW & Langerak CJ, 1995. Application of seed health testing at various stages of the seed production chain. International Seed Testing Association (ISTA), Zurich, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  24. Van der Wolf JM, Birnbaum Y, Van der Zouwen PS & Groot SPC, 2008. Disinfection of vegetable seed by treatments with essential oils and organic acids. Seed Sci Technol 36, 76–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Vannacci G & Harman GE, 1987. Biocontrol of seed-borne Alternaria raphani and A. brassicicola. Can J Microbiol 33, 850–856.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Walker JC, 1948. Vegetable seed treatment. Bot Rev 14, 588–601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. White JG, Linfield CA, Lahdenperä ML & Uoti J, 1990. Mycostop — a novel fungicide based on Streptomyces gris-eoviridis. Brighton Crop Protection Conference, Pests and Diseases — 1990. Vol. 1, 221–226.Google Scholar
  28. Wu W-S & Lu J-H, 1984. Seed treatment with antagonists and chemicals to control Alternaria brassicicola, Seed Sci Tech-nol 12, 851–862.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Deutsche Phythomedizinische Gesellschaft 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tahsein Amein
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sandra A. I. Wright
    • 2
  • Mariann Wikström
    • 3
  • Eckhard Koch
    • 4
  • Annegret Schmitt
    • 4
  • Dietrich Stephan
    • 4
  • Marga Jahn
    • 5
  • Federico Tinivella
    • 6
  • M. Lodovica Gullino
    • 6
  • Gustaf Forsberg
    • 7
  • Sigrid Werner
    • 8
  • Jan van der Wolf
    • 9
  • Steven P. C. Groot
    • 9
  1. 1.Dept of Cell and Molecular BiologyGöteborgSweden
  2. 2.Dipartimento di Scienze Animali, Vegetali e dell’AmbienteUniversità degli Studi del MoliseCampobassoItaly
  3. 3.JordbruksverketVäxtskyddscentralen i AlnarpAlnarpSweden
  4. 4.JKIInstitute for Biological ControlDarmstadtGermany
  5. 5.JKIInstitute for Strategies and Technology Assessment in Plant ProtectionKleinmachnowGermany
  6. 6.Centre of Competence for the Innovation in the Agro-Environmental Sector (AGROINNOVA)University of TorinoGrugliascoItaly
  7. 7.Seedgard ABUppsalaSweden
  8. 8.Hild Samen GmbHMarbach am NeckarGermany
  9. 9.Plant Research InternationalPB WageningenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations