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Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection

, Volume 115, Issue 2, pp 80–87 | Cite as

Effects of soil application of neem (NeemAzal®-U) on different life stages of Liriomyza sativae (Diptera: Agromyzidae) on tomato in the humid tropics

  • M. B. Hossain
  • H.-M. Poehling
  • G. Thöming
  • C. Borgemeister
Article

Abstract

NeemAzal®-U, a formulation containing 17% azadirachtin developed for soil treatments, was tested in air conditioned laboratories and net greenhouses in Thailand to control Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae) on tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum). The substrates of potted tomato plants were drenched with set volumes of neem solutions of altered concentrations. All tested neem concentrations had very low effects on oviposition and egg hatching. Strong systemic effects however were recorded in the larval stages attaining mortalities up to 100% when high dose drenching solutions containing 3 g NeemAzal®-U l−1 water equivalent to 0.5 g l−1 azadirachtin A were implemented. First instar larvae were found to be most susceptible to all dosages tested. Activity of NeemAzal®-U was persistent since application of even seven days before infestation resulted in mortalities extending between 40 to 70%. Leafminer late 3rd instar surviving on treated plants and moving as so called prepupa to pupate in treated soils endured a very high mortality during pupal stage ensuing in few adult emergences even when the lowest NeemAzal®-U concentration of 0.75 g l−1 water was used. The direct effects of soil treatment were elucidated by rearing leafminers on untreated plants but treating the substrate used for pupal development. Significant mortalities were only obtained when soil treatment was performed immediately before prepupa moved to the soil.

Key words

Azadirachta indica leafminers Liriomyza sativae neem soil drench systemic effects 

Wirkung einer Bodenbehandlung mit Neem (NeemAzal®-U) auf verschiedene Entwicklungsstadien von Liriomyza sativae (Diptera: Agromyzidae) an Tomate in den humiden Tropen

Zusammenfassung

Unter kontrollierten Laborbedingungen und in tropischen Netz-Gewächshäusern in Thailand wurde die Effizienz von NeemAzal®-U (17% Azadirachtin), entwickelt für Substrat-applikationen, zur Kontrolle von Liriomyza sativae Blanchard an Tomaten (Lycopersicon esculentum) überprüft. Die Substrate von getopften Tomatenpflanzen wurden mit konstanten Volumen aber unterschiedlich konzentrierten Neem-Lösungen behandelt. Alle getesteten Neem-Konzentrationen hatten nur einen geringen Einfluß auf die Eiablage und den Schlupf der Minierfliegen. Deutliche systemische Effekte ergaben sich jedoch gegenüber den Larvalstadien mit Mortalitätsraten bis zu 100%, insbesondere beim Einsatz hoher Dosierungen mit 3 g l−1 NeemAzal®-U entsprechend 0.5 g l−1 Azadirachtin. Die jüngsten Larvenstadien (L1) reagierten am empfindlichsten. Der negative Einfluss von Neem auf die Minierfliegen war ausgesprochen persistent, wurden doch auf Pflanzen, die 7 Tage vor der Besiedlung behandelt wurden, noch Mortalitätsraten bis zu 70% erzielt. Späte dritte Larvenstadien (L3), die auf behandelten Pflanzen sich noch bis zur Abwanderung als sogenannte Praepuppen entwickeln konnten, zeigten dann während der Puppenphase im Substrat hohe Mortalitätsraten, selbst bei den niedrigsten Aufwandmengen von NeemAzal®-U (0.75 g l−1). Demgegenüber war die direkte Beeinträchtigung von Puppen, die sich aus Larven von unbehandelten Pflanzen in behandelten Substraten entwickelten nur dann substanziell, wenn die Behandlung unmittelbar vor dem Substrat-kontakt der abwandernden Präpuppen erfolgten.

Stichwörter

Azadirachta indica Bodenbehandlung Liriomyza sativae Minierfliegen Neem systemische Effekte 

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Copyright information

© Deutsche Phythomedizinische Gesellschaft 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. B. Hossain
    • 1
  • H.-M. Poehling
    • 1
  • G. Thöming
    • 1
  • C. Borgemeister
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Plant ProtectionLeibniz Universität HannoverHannoverGermany

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