Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection

, Volume 113, Issue 5, pp 225–233 | Cite as

Evidence of induced resistance of tomato plants against Phytophthora infestans by a water extract of dried biomass of Penicillium chrysogenum



The water extract of killed Penicillium chrysogenum (Pen) was used to induce resistance against Phytophthora infestans in tomato plants. After two treatments with Pen as foliar spray, a protection of over 90% was achieved compared to control plants. The protective effect was shown under controlled conditions with two assays, whole plants and on leaf disk. The achieved resistance was proportional to the content of total carbohydrate, assuming sugars to be involved as inducing compounds. The extract had no direct antifungal activity on in vitro growth of P. i n f e s t a n s, suggesting that disease control resulted from the induction of natural defense mechanisms in the tomato plants. The induction of resistance was accompanied by an activity increase of peroxidase enzymes. After separation of soluble, ionically cell wall-bound extracellular and cytosolic fractions, only the extracellular soluble fraction contained at least two isoenzymes specifically inducible by Pen and corresponding to the achieved resistance. Furthermore, application of Pen led to an acidification of the intercellular fluid in the leaf tissue. The intercellular acidification was closely associated with the achieved resistance indicating a participation in the resistance inducing process. The acidification of the intercellular space introduces a possibly new mode of action of resistance induction.

Key words

acidification extracellular intercellular fluid marker enzyme Pen peroxidase 

Hinweis auf induzierte Resistenz in Tomatenpflanzen gegenüber Phytophthora infestans durch einen wässrigen Extrakt getrockneter Biomasse von Penicillium chrysogenum


Der wässrige Extrakt von abgetötetem Penicillium chrysoge-num (Pen) wurde zur Resistenzinduktion bei Tomaten gegen Phytophthora infestans benutzt. Nach zwei Sprühapplikationen des Pen-Extrakts auf die Blätter wurde ein Schutz von über 90% im Vergleich zu den Kontrollpflanzen erreicht. Die Schutzwirkung wurde an Ganzpflanzen und Blattscheiben unter Gewächshausbedingungen getestet. Da der Effekt proportional zur Gesamtkohlenhydratkonzentration des Extrakts war, werden Zucker als aktive Komponenten vermutet. Der Extrakt zeigte keine direkte antifungale Aktivität auf das Wachstum von P. infestans. Das lässt auf eine Induktion pflanzlicher Abwehrmechanismen schließen. Die Resistenzinduktion wurde von einer Steigerung der Peroxidaseaktivität begleitet. Nach einer Trennung in extrazellulär lösliche, extrazellulär zellwandgebundene und cytoplasmatische Isoenzyme zeigte sich, dass ausschließlich in der extrazellulär löslichen Fraktion zwei Isoenzyme spezifisch durch die Behandlung mit Pen induziert wurden und ihre Aktivität proportional zum erreichten Resistenzgrad war. Weiterhin führte die Applikation von Pen zu einer starken Ansäuerung der Interzellularflüssigkeit des Blattgewebes. Die Ansäuerung des Interzellularraumes war eng mit dem erreichten Resistenzgrad verknüpft und scheint ein neuer Wirkmechanismus der Resistenzinduktion zu sein.


Ansäuerung extrazellulär Interzellular-flüssigkeit Markerenzym Pen Peroxidase 


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Copyright information

© Deutsche Phythomedizinische Gesellschaft 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Land Use — Crop HealthUniversity of RostockRostockGermany

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