Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection

, Volume 113, Issue 4, pp 181–187 | Cite as

Effect of temperature and host plant on the efficacy of different entomopathogenic fungi from Thailand against Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in the laboratory

  • M. Thungrabeab
  • P. Blaeser
  • C. SengoncaEmail author


The current study is focusing on the effect of temperature and host plant on the efficacy of different entomopathogenic fungi from Thailand against western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Linde-man (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). The results showed that the efficacy of five entomopathogenic fungi, i.e. two isolates of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Bb. 4591 and Bb. 5335), two isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (Metsch) Sorokin (Ma. 6079 and Ma. 7965) as well as one isolate of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wize) Brown & Smith (Pfu. 5338) varied depending on the temperature and the fungal isolate in both thrips species. The Lc50 values decreased with increasing temperature. All fungal isolates showed a significantly higher efficacy against both thrips species at 25 and 30°C than at 16°C. Among five isolates, B. bassiana Bb. 5335 and M. anisopliae Ma. 7965 were superior in terms of efficacy against both thrips species within a broader range of temperature. The effect of host plants on the efficacy of B. bassiana (Bb. 5335) and M. anisopliae (Ma. 7965) was tested against first instar larvae of F. occidentalis and T. tabaci. The results revealed that the efficacy of these two fungi against F. occidentalis and T. tabaci varied with to the host plant, whether on crop or on ornamental plants. Both thrips species reared on bean, cucumber, leek and swan river daisy were highly susceptible to fungal infection but significantly less susceptible when reared on cotton and saintpaulia.


Beauveria entomopathogenic fungi Frankliniella occidentalis host plant effect Metarhizium onion thrips temperature Thrips tabaci western flower thrips 

Einfluss der Temperatur und Wirtspflanzen auf die Wirksamkeit von verschiedenen entomopathogenen Pilzisolaten aus Thailand als erfolgversprechende Bekämpfungsagenzien gegen Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) und Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) im Labor


Das Ziel der vorliegenden Untersuchung war es, den Einfluss von Temperatur und Wirtspflanzen auf die Wirksamkeit unterschiedlicher entomopathogener Pilze aus Thailand gegenüber dem Kalifornischen Blütenthrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), und dem Zwiebelthrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), zu ermitteln. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Wirksamkeit der fünf entomopa-thogenen Pilzisolate von Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Bb. 4591 und Bb. 5335), Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (Metsch) Sorokin (Ma. 6079 und Ma. 7965) und Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wize) Brown & Smith (Pfu. 5338) gegenüber beiden Thripsarten in Abhängigkeit von der Temperatur und dem Pilzisolat variierte. Die Lc50-Werte verringerten sich mit zunehmender Temperatur, wobei alle Pilzisolate eine signifikant höhere Wirksamkeit bei 25 und 30°C als bei 16°C gegenüber den beiden Thripsarten zeigten. Die höchste Wirkung gegenüber beiden Thripsarten konnte bei B. bassiana Bb. 5335 und M. anisopliae Ma. 7965 in allen Temperaturbereichen ermittelt werden.

In weiteren Untersuchungen wurde der Einfluss der Wirts-pflanzen auf die Wirksamkeit von B. bassiana (Bb. 5335) und M. anisopliae (Ma. 7965) gegenüber dem ersten Larvenstadium von F. occidentalis und T. tabaci untersucht. Die Wirksamkeit der beiden Pilzisolate variierte bei F. occidentalis und T. tabaci in Abhängigkeit von der Wirtspflanze sowohl bei Kultur- als auch bei Zierpflanzen. Beide Thripsarten, die auf Buschbohnen, Gurken, Porree und Blauem Gänseblümchen gezüchtet wurden, zeigten eine hohe Anfälligkeit gegenüber den beiden Isolaten, waren aber signifikant geringer empfindlich als diejenigen, die sich an Baumwolle und Usambaraveilchen entwickelten.


Beauveria entomopathogene Pilze Frankliniella occidentalis Kalifornischer Blütenthrips Metarhizium Temperatur Thrips tabaci Wirtspflanzeneinfluss Zwiebelthrips 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abbott, W.S., 1925: A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. J. Econ. Entomol. 18, 265–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anonymous, 2002: SAS/STAT User’s Guide, version 9.1. SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA.Google Scholar
  3. Benz G., 1987: Environment. In: FUXA, J.R., TANADA, Y. (eds): Epizootiology of Fungal Diseases, pp. 177–214. John Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  4. Blanford, S., M.B. Thomas, 2000: Thermal behaviour of two acridid species: Effects of habitat and season on body temperature and the potential impact on biocontrol with pathogens. Environ. Entomol. 29, 1060–1069.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brødsgaard, H., 1989: Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysan-optera: Thripidae) — a new pest in Danish glasshouses. A. review. Tidsskr. Planteavl. 93, 83–91.Google Scholar
  6. Dimbi, S., N.K. Manianiai, S.A. Lux, J.M. Mueke, 2004: Effect of constant temperatures on germination, radial growth and virulence of Metarhizium anisopliae to three species of African tephritid fruit flies. Biocontrol 49, 83–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ekesi, S., N.K. Maniania, K. Ampong-Nyarko, 1999: Effect of temperature on germination, radial growth and virulence of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana on Megaluro-thrips sjostedti. Biocontrol Sci. Technol. 9, 177–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fargues, J., A. Ouedraogo, M.S. Goettel, C.J. Lomer, 1997: Effects of temperature, humidity and inoculation method on susceptibility of Schistocerca gregaria to Metarhizium flavoviride. Biocontrol. Sci. Technol. 7, 345–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ferron, P., 1978: Biological control of insect pests by entomog-enous fungi. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 23, 409–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ferron, P., J. Fargues, G. Riba, 1991: Fungi as microbial insecticides against pest. In: ARORA, D.K., AJELLO, L., MUKERJIK, G. (eds.): Handbook of Applied Mycology: Humans, Animals and Insects, vol. 2, pp. 665–706. Marcel Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  11. Finney, D.J., 1971: Probit Analysis, 3rd ed. Cambridge University Press, London.Google Scholar
  12. Gallordo, F., D.J. Boethel, J.R. Fuxa, A. Richter, 1990: Suscep-tibility of Heliothis zea (Boddie) larvae to Nomuraea rileyi (farlow) Samson: Effect of tomatine at the third trophic level. J. Chem. Ecol. 16, 751–759.Google Scholar
  13. Gomez, K.A., A.A. Gomez, 1984: Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research, 2nd ed. John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  14. Guirard, P., R. Steiman, F. Seogel-Murandi, J.L. Brnoit-Guyod, 1995: Comparison of the toxicity of various lignin-related phenolic compound toward selected fungi perfect and fungi imperfect. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Safety 32, 29–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Helen Y., J.K. Pell, P.G. Alderson, S.J. Clark, B.J. Pye, 2003: Laboratory evaluation of temperature effects on the germination and growth of entomopathogenic fungi and on their pathogenicity to two aphid species. Pest Manag. Sci. 59, 156–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Inyangi, E.N., T.M. Butt, A. Beckett, S. Archer, 1999: The effect of crucifer epicuticular waxes and leaf extracts on the germination and virulence of Metarhizium anisopliae conidia. Mycol. Res. 103, 419–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Licey, L.A., O. Mercadier, 1998: The effect of selected alle-lochemicals on germination of conidia and blastospores and mycelial growth of the entomopathogenic fungus, Paecilo-myces fumosoroseus (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes). Mycopathologia 142, 17–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Maniania, N.K., J. Fargues, 1992: Susceptibility of Mamestra brassicae (L.) and Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) (Lep., Noc-tuidae) to the hyphomycetes Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Brown and Smith) and Nomuraea rileyi (Samson) at two temperatures. J. Appl. Entomol. 13, 518–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Matthew, B.T., N.E. Jenkins, 1997: Effect of temperature on growth of Metarhizium flavoviride and virulence to the variegated grasshopper, Zonocerus variegates. Mycol. Res. 101, 1469–1474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mccoy, C.W., 1990: Entomopathogenous fungi as microbial pesticide. In: Baker, R.R., Dunn, P.E. (eds.): New Directions in Biological Control: Alternatives for Suppressing Agricultural Pests and Diseases, pp. 139–159. Alan R. Liss, New York.Google Scholar
  21. Ouedraogo, A., J. Fargues, M.S. Goettel, C.J. Lomer, 1997: Effect of temperature on vegetative growth among isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae and M. flavoviride. Mycopathologia 137, 37–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Poprawski, T.J., J.J. Walker, 2000: Host plant effects on activity of the mitosporic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus against two populations of Bemisia whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Mycopathologia 151, 11–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Poprawski, T.J., S.M. Greenberg, M.A. Ciomperlik, 2000: Effect of host plant on Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces fumoso-roseus-induced mortality of Trialeuro des vaporariorum (Hom., Aleyrodidae). Environ. Entomol. 29, 1048–1053.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ramoska, W.A., T. Todd, 1985: Variation in efficacy and viability of Beauveria bassiana in the chinch bug (Hem., Lygaeidae) as a result of feeding activity on selected host plants. Environ. Entomol. 14, 146–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sengonca, C., M. Thungrabeab, P. Blaeser, 2006: Potential of the different isolates of entomopathogenic fungi from Thailand as biological control agents against western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). J. Plant Dis. Protect. 113, 74-80.Google Scholar
  26. Tanda, Y., H.K. Kaya, 1993: Insect Pathology. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA.Google Scholar
  27. Tefera, T., K. Pringle, 2003: Germination, radial growth, and sporulation of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae isolates and their virulence to Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at different temperatures. Biocontrol Sci. Technol. 13, 699–704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Thungrabeab, M., P. Blaeser, C. Sengonca, 2005: Control possibilities of the onion thrips Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thys., Thripidae) using different entomopathogenic fungi isolated from Thailand. Mitt. Dtsch. Ges. Allg. Angew. Entomol. (in print).Google Scholar
  29. Todd, A.U., S.P. Wraight, J.P. Sanderson, 2005: Differential susceptibility of western flower thrips (Frankliniella occiden-talis) to Beauveria bassiana as a function of host plant species. IOBC/WPRS Bull. 28, 271–274.Google Scholar
  30. Vega, F.E., P.F Dowd, M.R. Mcguire, M.A. Jackson, T.C. Nelsen, 1997: In vitro effects of secondary plant compounds on germination of blastospores of the entomopathogenic fungus Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes). J. Invertebr. Pathol. 70, 209–213.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Vestergaard, S., A.T. Gilliespie, T.M. Butt, G. Schreiter, J. Eilenberg, 1995: Pathogenicity of the hyphomycetes fungi Verti-cillium lecanii and Metarhizium anisopliae to the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis. Biocontrol Sci. Techol. 5, 185–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Vidal, C., L.S. Osborne, L.A. Lacey, J. Fargues, 1998: Effect of host plant on the potential of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) for controlling the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Aley-rodidae) in greenhouses. Biol. Control 12, 191–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Deutsche Phythomedizinische Gesellschaft 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Entomology and Plant Protection, Inres-PhytomedicineUniversity of BonnBonnGermany

Personalised recommendations