Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection

, Volume 112, Issue 6, pp 594–601 | Cite as

Toxic and residual effects of Azadirachta indica, Tagetes erecta and Cynodon dactylon seed extracts and leaf powders towards Tribolium castaneum

  • M. S. Islam
  • F. A. Talukder


Direct and residual toxicities of seed extracts and leaf powders of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica), marigold (Tagetes erecta) and durba (Cynodon dactylon) along with two commercial insecticides (malathion and carbaryl, respectively) towards the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum), a major stored-product pest, were evaluated. All seed extracts and leaf powders showed a certain degree of toxicity towards the insects. Among the tested plant derivatives, neem seed extract (100 μg/insect) showed higher direct toxicity (53.13 % mortality) towards red flour beetles than marigold (46.88 %) and durba (37 %) seed extracts. On the other hand, marigold leaf powder (5 %) showed a higher residual toxicity (57.09 % inhibition ratio) than neem (50.06 %) and durba (43.28 %) leaf powder. Compared with the commercial insecticides (malathion and carbaryl), neem seed extract and marigold leaf powder possess a potential as natural alternative insecticides towards the red flour beetle in stored products.

Key words

carbaryl direct and residual toxicity durba insecticides leaf powders malathion marigold neem seed extracts stored-product pests Tribolium castaneum 

Direkte und residuale Giftwirkung von Samenextrakten und Blattpulvern aus Azadirachta indica, Tagetes erecta und Cynodon dactylon auf Tribolium castaneum


Die direkte und residuale Giftwirkung von Samenextrakten und Blattpulvern von Azadirachta indica (Neembaum), Tagetes erecta (Aufrechte Sammetblume oder Studentenblume) und Cynodon dactylon (Hundszahngras) sowie den beiden Insektiziden Carbaryl und Malathion auf den Rotbraunen Reismehlkäfer (Tribolium castaneum), einen bedeutenden Vorratsschädling, wurde untersucht. Alle untersuchten Samenextrakte und Blattpulver zeigten eine gewisse Toxizität gegenüber den Insekten. Samenextrakte des Neembaums (100 μMg/Insekt) wiesen mit einer Mortalität von 53,13 % eine höhere direkte Toxizität auf als solche der Studentenblume (46,88 %) und des Hundszahngrases (37 %). Blattpulver (5 %) der Studentenblume hingegen zeigten eine höhere residuale Toxizität (57,09 %) als solche von Neem (50,06 %) und Hundszahngras (43,28 %). Der Samenextrakt des Neembaums und Studentenblumen-Blattpulver besitzen im Wirkungsvergleich mit den Insektiziden Carbaryl und Malathion ein Potenzial als alternative Insektizide gegen den Rotbraunen Reismehlkäfer im Nacherntebereich.


Aufrechte Sammetblume Blattpulver Carbaryl direkte und residuale Toxizität Hundszahngras Insektizide; Malathion Neem Samenextrakte Studentenblume Tribolium castaneum Vorratsschädlinge 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abbott, W. S. (1925): A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. J. Econ. Entomol. 18, 265–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anonymous (1991): Recommendations of the symposium on resources for sustainable agriculture: The use of neem and other plant materials for pest control and rural development. Proceedings, 17th Pacific Science Congress, 1–11.Google Scholar
  3. Arther, F. H., Zettler, J. L. (1991): Malathion resistance in Tribolium castaneum: Difference between mortality caused by topical surfaces. J. Econ. Entomol. 84, 721–729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bomford, M. K., Isman, M. B. (1996): Desensitization of fifth instar Spodoptera litura to azadirachtin and neem. Ent. Exp. Appl. 81, 307–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chan, L. S. (1992): Towards integrated pest management of rice in Korea. Kor. J. Appl. Entomol. 31, 205–240.Google Scholar
  6. Collins, P. J. (1998): Inheritance of resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). J. Stored-Prod. Res. 34, 395–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dhaliwal, B. K., Chawla, R. P. (1995): Evaluation of current status of malathion resistance in Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in Punjab, India. J. Pestic. Res. 7, 54–57.Google Scholar
  8. Duncan, D. B. (1951): A significance test for differences between ranked treatments in an analysis of variance. Virginia J. Sci. 2, 171–189.Google Scholar
  9. Ewete, F. K., Arnason, J. T., Larson, J., Philogene, B. J. R. (1996): Biological activities of extracts from traditionally used Nigerian plants against the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis. Ent. Exp. Appl. 80, 531–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Finney, D. J. (1971): Statistical Method in Biological Assay, 2nd edition. Griffin, London.Google Scholar
  11. Halliday, W. R., Arthur, F. H., Zettler, F. H. (1988): Resistance status of red flour beetle (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) infesting stored peanuts in Southeastern United States. J. Econ. Entomol. 81, 74–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Haubruge, E., Arnaud, L., Mignon, J. (1997): The impact of sperm precedence in malathion resistance transmission in populations of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (tiColeoptera: Tenebrionidae). J. Stored-Prod. Res. 33, 143–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Haubruge, E., Arnaud, L. (2001): Fitness consequences of malathion-specific resistance in red flour beetle (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and selection for resistance in the absence of malathion. J. Econ. Entomol. 94, 552–557.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Hermawan, W., Nakajima, S., Tsukuda, R., Fujisaki, K., Nakasuji, F. (1997): Isolation of an antifeedant compound from Andrographis paniculata (Acanthaceae) against the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae). Appl. Entomol. Zool. 32, 551–559.Google Scholar
  15. Irshad M., Gillani, W. A. (1990): Resistance in Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tene-brionidae) against malathion. Pakistan J. Zool. 22, 257–262.Google Scholar
  16. Khanam, L. A. M., Talukder, D. (1993): Effect of Bishkatali, Polygonum hydropiper L., leaf and Royna, Aphanamixis polystachya Wall. (Parker) seed coat extract on the fecundity and fertility of Tribolium confusum. Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res. 27, 49–55.Google Scholar
  17. Kotze, A. C., Wallbank, B. E. (1996): Esterase and monooxygenase activities in organophosphate-resistant strains of Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Coleoptera: Cucujidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 89, 571–576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Malek, M. A., Wilkins, R. M. (1995): Effects of Annona squamosa L. seed oil on the larvae of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Bangladesh J. Zool. 23, 65–70.Google Scholar
  19. Mohiuddin, S., Qureshi, R. A., Ahmed, Z., Qureshi, S. A., Jamil, K., Jyothi, K. N., Prasuna, A. L. (1993): Laboratory evaluation of some vegetable oils as protectants of stored products. Pakistan J. Sci. Ind. Res. 36, 377–379.Google Scholar
  20. Mordue, A. J., Blackwell, A. (1993): Azadirachtin: An update. J. Insect Physiol. 39, 903–924.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mukhopadhyay, S. K., Buddhadeb, D., Duary, B., Dasgupta, M. K., Ghosh, D. C., Gupta, D. D., Majumdar, D. K., Chattopadhyay, G. N., Ganguli, P. K., Munsi, P. S., Bhattacharya, D. (1995): Ethnobotany of some common crop field weeds in a sub-humid agricultural tract of West Bengal. Proceedings, National Symposium on Sustainable Agriculture in Sub-humid Zone, West Bengal, India, 272–277.Google Scholar
  22. Osman, N., Regesus, B. N. (1981): Evaluation of Indonesian strains of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) for resistance to malathion and pirimiphos methyl. Philippine Entomol. 5, 405–414.Google Scholar
  23. Pasalu I. C., Bhatia, S. K. (1983): Inheritance of resistance to malathion in Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. Anim. Sci.) 92, 409–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Pascual, V. M. J., Robledo, A. (1998): Screening for anti-insect activity in Mediterranean plants. Ind. Crops Prod. 8, 183–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Saxena, R. C., Dixit, O. P., Sukumaran, P. (1992): Laboratory assessment of indigenous plant extracts for anti-juvenile hormone activity in Culex quinquefasciatus. Indian J. Med. Res. Sect. A Infec. Dis. 95, 204–206.Google Scholar
  26. Saxena, J. D., Sinha, S. R. (1995): Cross resistance spectrum of a laboratory selected deltamethrin— resistant strain of red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). Indian J. Entomol. 57, 116–119.Google Scholar
  27. Sharma, R. K. (1999): Efficacy of neem products against storage pests in maize. Ann. Agric. Res. 20, 198–201.Google Scholar
  28. Stuart, J. J., Ray, S., Harrington, B. J., Neal, J. J., Beeman, R. W. (1998): Genetic mapping of a major locus controlling pyrethroid resistance in Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 91, 1232–1238.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Talukder, F. A., Howse, P. E. (1993): Deterrent and insecticidal effects of extracts of pithraj, Aphanamixis polystachya (Meliaceae) against Tribolium castaneum, in storage. J. Chem. Ecol. 19, 2463–2471.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Talukder, F. A., Howse, P. E. (1995): Evaluation of Aphanamixis polystachya as repellants, antifeedants, toxicants and protectants in storage against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). J. Stored-Prod. Res. 31, 55–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Talukder, F. A, Miyata, T. (2002): In vivo and in vitro toxicities of pithraj and neem against rice green leafhopper (Nephotettix cincticeps Uhler). Z. Pflanzenkrankh. Pflanzensch. — J. Plant Dis. Protect. 109, 543–550.Google Scholar
  32. Werner, P. (1997): Insecticide resistance in red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in the Czech Republic. Ochrana Rostlin 33, 57–63.Google Scholar
  33. Xie, Y. S., Fields, P. G., Isman, M. B. (1995): Repellency and toxicity of azadirachtin and neem concentrates to three stored-product beetles. J. Econ. Entomol. 88, 1024–1031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Zettler, J. L (1991): Pesticide resistance in Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) from flour mills in the USA. J. Econ. Entomol. 84, 763–767.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Zettler, J. L., Arthur, F. H. (1997): Dose-response tests on red flour beetle and confused flour beetle (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) collected from flour mills in the United States. J. Econ. Entomol. 90, 1157–1162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Deutsche Phythomedizinische Gesellschaft 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Entomology, Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of RajshahiBangladesh
  2. 2.Department of Crop Sciences, College of Agricultural and Marine SciencesSultan Qaboos UniversityOman

Personalised recommendations