Advertisement

A comparative study on environmental policy development processes in the three East Asian countries: Japan, Korea, and China

  • Yohei Harashima
  • Tsuneyuki Morita
Article

Abstract

This study comparatively analyzes the environmental policy development processes in the three East Asian countries: Japan, Korea, and China. The history of policy development and relative sociopolitical background are investigated and compared in relation to the countries’ economic growth using quantitative economic indicators. The comparisons show that environmental policies in the three countries, in the long run, have been converging, except for a certain time lag, and that the environmental policy development processes in the three countries were closely related to economic growth. However, when compared to Japan, the tempo of environmental policy development in China and Korea has been faster than that of their economic growth. Major differences identified in these processes were due to several factors: the role of local government, information disclosure, influence of international pressure, latecomer status, the market mechanism, and environmental issues in the policy agenda. The applicability of these findings to other East Asian countries’ experiences is examined in the final section.

Key words

East Asia Environmental policy Economic growth Comparative study Development process 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Agency of Natural Resource and Energy, Japan (1995) Sogo energy tokei: heisei 7 nendo (Comprehensive energy statistics: 1995 fiscal year). Tsusyosangyo Kenkyusya, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  2. Economic Planning Administration, Republic of Korea (1982) Major statistics of Korean economy 1982. Economic Planning Administration, SeoulGoogle Scholar
  3. Economic Planning Agency, Japan (1995) Keizai hakusyo: heisei 7 nendo (Economic white paper: 1995 fiscal year). Printing Bureau, Ministry of Finance, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  4. Hao Y (1992) Environmental protection in Chinese foreign policy. Journal of Northeast Asian Studies 11(3):25–46Google Scholar
  5. Harashima Y (1995) A comparative analysis of environmental policy development processes in East Asian countries (in Japanese). In: 1995 Nenkai koen yoshisyu (Collection of discussion papers in 1995 annual meeting). Society of Environmental Science, Tsukuba, p 35Google Scholar
  6. Harashima Y (1996) A comparative study of environmental policy development processes in East Asian countries (in Japanese). In: 1996 Nenkai koen yoshisyu (Collection of discussion papers in 1996 annual meeting). Society of Environmental Science, Tsukuba, pp 176–177Google Scholar
  7. Harashima Y, Morita T (1995) A comparative analysis of environmental policy development processes in East Asian countries (in Japanese). Keikaku Gyosei (Planning Administration) 18(3):73–85Google Scholar
  8. Hishida K (1986) The current state of environmental problems in China (in Japanese). Sangyo Kogai (Industrial Pollution) 22(7):14–23Google Scholar
  9. Huntington S (1991) The third wave: democratization in the late twentieth century. University of Oklahoma Press, NormanGoogle Scholar
  10. Imura H, Katsuhara T (eds) (1995) Higashi Asia no kogyoka to kankyo mondai (Industrialization and environmental problems in East Asia). Kokusai Higashi Asia Kenkyu Centre, Kita-kyusyuGoogle Scholar
  11. Kato K (1996) Legal frameworks for environmental governance in East and Southeast Asian countries (East-West Center working paper). East-West Center, HonoluluGoogle Scholar
  12. Kojima R, Fujisaki S (eds) (1993) Kankyo to kaihatsu: higashi Asia no keiken (Environment and development: the East Asian experiences). Asia Keizai Kenkyuujyo, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  13. Koo Y (1979) Legal aspects of environmental protection in Korea. Korean Journal of Comparative Law 7:1–59Google Scholar
  14. Korea Energy Economic Institute (1992) 1992 Yearbook of energy statistics. Korea Energy Economic Institute, SeoulGoogle Scholar
  15. Korea Energy Economic Institute (1994) 1994 Yearbook of energy statistics. Korea Energy Economic Institute, SeoulGoogle Scholar
  16. Korea Institute for International Economic Policy (1993) A study in Sino-Korean environmental cooperation (in Korean). Korea Institute for International Economic Policy, SeoulGoogle Scholar
  17. Lee J, Harashima Y, Lee D, Morita T (1995) A comparative analysis of processes used in developing environmental policies in Japan and Korea (in Japanese). Kankyo Kagaku (Environmental Science) 8(2):181–192Google Scholar
  18. Levine M, Liu F, Sinton J (1992) China’s energy system: historical evolution, current issues, and prospects. Annual Review of Energy and the Environment 17:405–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ministry of Environment, Republic of Korea (1992) National report of the Republic of Korea to UNCED, SeoulGoogle Scholar
  20. Morishima A (1981) Japanese environmental policy and law. In: Kato I, Kumamoto N, Matthews W (eds) Environmental law and policy in the Pacific Basin area. University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, pp 77–84Google Scholar
  21. National Statistical Office, Republic of Korea (1996) Major statistics of Korean economy 1996. National Statistical Office, SeoulGoogle Scholar
  22. O’Connor D (1994) Managing the environment with rapid industrialization: lessons from the East Asian experience. OECD, ParisGoogle Scholar
  23. OECD (1977) Environmental policies in Japan. OECD, ParisGoogle Scholar
  24. Pearce D, Markandya A, Barbier E (1989) Blueprint for a green economy. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  25. People’s Republic of China (1992) National report of the People’s Republic of China on environment and development. China Environmental Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  26. Porter G, Brown J (1996) Global environmental politics, 2nd edn. Westview Press, Boulder, CO, USAGoogle Scholar
  27. Qu G (1990) China’s environmental policy and world environmental problems. International Environmental Affairs 2(2):103–108Google Scholar
  28. Qu G (1991) Environmental management in China. UNEP/China Environmental Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  29. Siml V (1993) China’s environmental crisis: an inquiry into the limits of national development. M.E. Sharp, Armonk, NY, USAGoogle Scholar
  30. State Statistical Bureau, People’s Republic of China (1992) China statistical yearbook 1992. China Statistical Publishing House, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  31. State Statistical Bureau, People’s Republic of China (1995) China statistical yearbook 1995. China Statistical Publishing House, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  32. Summers R, Heston A (1991) The Penn world table (Mark5): an expanded set of international comparison 1950–1988. Quarterly Journal of Economics May 1991:327–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Toyo-Keizai (ed) (1991) Kanketsu Syowa kokusei soran: dai 1 kan (Statistics of the state of a country in Syowa era; vol 1). Toyo-Keizai, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  34. Vogel D (1987) The comparative study of environmental policy: a review of the literature. In: Dierkes M, Weiler H, Antal A (eds) Comparative policy research: learning from experience. Gower Publishing, Hants, pp 99–169Google Scholar
  35. Wakabayashi K (1989) Chugoku no jinko mondai (Population problems in China). University of Tokyo Press, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  36. World Bank (1992) World development report 1992. Oxford University Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. World Commission on Environment and Development (1987) Our common future. Oxford University Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  38. Yamazawa I (1993) Transmission of industrial development and international industrial adjustment. Keizai Bunseki (Economic Analysis) 129:14–36Google Scholar
  39. Zhang K, Jin R (eds) (1992) A course in China’s environmental protection law. Tsinghua University Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yohei Harashima
    • 1
  • Tsuneyuki Morita
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute for Global Environmental StrategiesChiyoda-ku, TokyoJapan
  2. 2.Global Warming Response TeamNational Institute for Environmental StudiesTsukuba, IbarakiJapan

Personalised recommendations