Advertisement

Journal of Endocrinological Investigation

, Volume 15, Issue 2, pp 103–108 | Cite as

Study of an endemic goiter area in northern Campania

  • M. lodice
  • A. Arnese
  • M. Colapietro
  • S. De Riu
  • E. Prospero
  • G. Sagliocco
  • R. Ullucci
  • G. M. Grasso
Article

Abstract

The purpose of this paper was the determination, in the endemic goiter area of Teano (Caserta, Italy), of: i) The goiter prevalence in a group of 920 patients who attended the Outpatient Endocrinology Department; ii) The urinary iodine excretion in 150 adults (20–73-year-old) and 502 children (10–16-year- old); iii) The thyroid size in the 502 children; iv) The environmental iodine levels. Out of 920 patients a total of 750 (81.5%) goiters were detected. Out of these 750 cases, 415 (55.3%) were of grades 1b and 2, 335 (44.7%) of grades 3 and 4. A statistically significant association between goiter size and age was found (p < 0.05). Laboratory data were entirely available for 506 goitrous patients. Serum TG levels was increased with goiter size and age, whereas there was a progressive decrease in mean serum TSH levels with increasing goiter size and age. The screening program performed on 502 schoolchildren aged 10 to 16 yr found a 68.3% prevalence of grade 1 goiter and a mean urinary ratio iodine/creatinine of 52 ± 32 (SD) μ/g. A mean urinary ratio iodine/creatinine of 60 ± 27 (SD) μ/g was reported in a sample of 150 adult inhabitants. Iodine measurements in water supplies showed levels equal to or less than 1 μg/l. The area investigated can be identified as a moderate iodine deficient area and classified as grade 1–2 according to the Pan American Health Organization criteria.

Keywords

Goiter Iodine Deficiency Lodine Thyroid Volume Nodular Goiter 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Subcommittee for the study of endemic goitre and iodine deficiency of the European Thyroid Association. Goitre and iodine deficiency in Europe. Lancet 1; 1289, 1985.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gutekunst R., Scriba P.C. Goiter and iodine deficiency in Europe. The European Thyroid Association report as updated in 1988. J. Endocrinol. Invest. 12:209, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Roti E., Gardini E. Gozzo endemico in Italia. Situazione attuale. Min. Endocrinol. 13:77, 1988.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hetzel B.S. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) and their eradication. Lancet 2:1126, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Frey H.M.M., Rosenlund B., Torgersen J.P. Value of single urine specimens in estimation of 24 hour urine iodine excretion. Acta Endocrinol. (Copenh.) 72:287, 1973.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Thilly C.H., Delange F., Stanbury G.B. Epidemiological surveys in endemic goitre and cretinism. In: Stanbury G.B., Hetzel B.S. (Eds.), Endemic goitre and cretinism. Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hetzel B.S. The prevention and control of iodine deficiency disorders. Nutrition Policy Discussion Paper no. 3, FAO.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bakker H.J. Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Total Inorganic Iodine in Milk. J. A.O.A.C. 60:1307, 1977.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hintze G., Windeier J., Baumert J., Stein H., Kobber-ling J. Thyroid volume and goitre prevalence in the elderly as determined by ultrasound and their relationships to laboratory indices. Acta Endocrinol. (Copenh.) 124:12, 1991.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hegedus L., Perrild H., Poulsen L.R., Andersen J.R., Holm B., Schnohr P., Jensen G., Hansen J.M. The determination of thyroid volume by ultrasound and its relationship to body weight, age, and sex in normal subjects. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 56:260, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Berghout A., Wiersinga W.M., Smits N.J., Touber J.L. Determinants of thyroid volume as measured by ultrasonography in healthy adults in a non-iodine deficient area. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf.) 26:273, 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fenzi G.F., Ceccarelli C., Macchia E., Monzani F., Bartalena L., Giani C., Ceccarelli P., Lippi F., Baschieri L, Pinchera A. Reciprocal changes of serum thyroglobulin and TSH in resident of a moderate endemic goitre area. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf.) 23:115, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Roti E., Gardini E., D’Amato L., Salvi M., Robuschi G., Manfredi A., Dallara G., Pino S., Guazzi A.M., Gnudi A., Braverman L.E. Goiter size and thyroid function in an endemic goiter area in northern Italy. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 63:558, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pezzino V., Vigneri R., Squatrito S., Filetti S., Camus M., Polosa P. Increased serum thyroglobulin levels in patients with nontoxic goiter. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 46: 653, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Van Herle A.J., Chopra I.J., Hershman J.M., Horna-brook R.W. Serum thyroglobulin in inhabitants of an endemic goiter region of New Guinea. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 43:512, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Vigneri R. Studies on the goiter endemia in Sicily. J. Endocrinol. Invest. 77:831, 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Emrich D., Bahare M. Autonomy in euthyroid goitre: maladaptation to iodine deficiency. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf.) 3:257, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gemsenjager E., Staub J.J., Girard J., Heitz P.H. Preclinical hyperthyroidism in multinodular goiter. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 43:810, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Studer H., Hunziker H.R., Ruchti C Morphologic and functional substrate of thyrotoxicosis caused by nodular goiters. Am. J. Med. 65:227, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Belfiore A., Sava L, Runello F., Tomaselli L, Vigneri R. Solitary autonomously functioning thyroid nodules and iodine deficiency. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 56:283, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Costa A., Benedetto V., Ricci C, Borelli P., Fadda E., Ravarino N., Torchio B., Dario U., Fragapane P., Varvello G., De Filippis V. Immunological features of endemic goiter. Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 47:265, 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fenzi G.F., Giani C, Ceccarelli P., Bartalena L, Macchia E., Aghini-Lombardi F., Vitti P., Lari R., Ceccarelli C, Baschieri L., Pinchera A. Role of autoimmune and familial factors in goiter prevalence. Studies performed in a moderately endemic area. J. Endocrinol. Invest. 9:161, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ermans A.M. Endemic goiter. In: Ingbar S.H. Braverman L.E. (Eds.), Werner’s, The thyroid. A fundamental and clinical text. J.B. Lippincot Company, 1986, p. 705.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Vermiglio F., Finocchiaro M.D., Lo Presti V.P., La Torre N., Nucifora M., Trimarchi F. Partial beneficial effects of the so called “silent iodine prophylaxis” on iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) in Northeastern Sicily endemia. J. Endocrinol. Invest. 12:123, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Querido A., Delange F., Dunn J.T., Fierro-Benitez R., Ibbertson H.K., Koutras D.A., Parinetti H. Definition of endemic goiter and cretinism, classification of goiter size and severity of endemias and surveys techniques. In: Dunn J.T., Meideros-Neto G.A. (Eds.), Endemic goiter and cretinism. Continuing Threats to World Health. P.A.H.O. Sci. Pub. n.292, Washington, 1974, p.267.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Italian Society of Endocrinology (SIE) 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. lodice
    • 1
  • A. Arnese
    • 2
  • M. Colapietro
    • 1
  • S. De Riu
    • 3
  • E. Prospero
    • 2
  • G. Sagliocco
    • 2
  • R. Ullucci
    • 1
  • G. M. Grasso
    • 2
  1. 1.Servizio di EndocrinologiaU.S.L.Teano, CasertaItaly
  2. 2.Istituto di Igiene e Medicina Preventiva, II Facoltà di Medicina e ChirurgiaUniversité degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”NapoliItaly
  3. 3.Dipartimento di Endocrinologia Medico Chirurgica, Il Facoltà di Medicina e ChirurgiaUniversité degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”NapoliItaly

Personalised recommendations