Journal of Endocrinological Investigation

, Volume 28, Issue 4, pp 122–128 | Cite as

Risk factors associated to kidney stones in primary hyperparathyroidism

  • S. Corbetta
  • A. Baccarelli
  • A. Aroldi
  • L. Vicentini
  • G. B. Fogazzi
  • C. Eller-Vainicher
  • C. Ponticelli
  • P. Beck-Peccoz
  • A. Spada
Original Articles


Nephrolithiasis is the most important clinical manifestation of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), although nowadays this disorder is often asymptomatic. Clinical or biochemical differences between PHPT patients with and without nephrolithiasis have not been clearly identified in most of the previous studies. The aim of the study was to investigate clinical and biochemical parameters in kidney stone former (SF) and non-stone former (NSF) patients with PHPT in order to identify potential risk factors. Serum and plasma samples from 55 consecutive patients (43 females, 12 males) with PHPT were collected after overnight fasting; 24-h urine collection and a fresh sample of urine for sediment analysis were obtained from all patients. Clinical data were recorded in all. Out of 55 patients, 22 had kidney stones, which were symptomatic in 73%. SFs showed circulating PTH, total and ionized calcium, 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3, urinary calcium excretion and 24-h urine oxalate levels significantly higher than NSFs. Hypercalciuria was often concomitant with massive quantities of calcium oxalate crystals in urine sediment. Hypercalciuria and relatively high oxaluria were associated with stone formation with an odds ratio (OR) of 4.0 and 7.0, respectively, which rose to 33.5 when they coexisted. Hypomagnesuria and hypocitraturia were common in at least one third of all PHPT patients, but they were not associated to an increased OR. As expected, they were positively correlated with urine calcium excretion, suggesting that calcium, magnesium and citrate are commonly regulated at renal level. In conclusion, hypercalciuria, higher oxalate excretion and severe PHPT are associated with kidney stones in PHPT.


Primary hyperparathyroidism nephrolithiasis hypercalciuria oxaluria 


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Copyright information

© Italian Society of Endocrinology (SIE) 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Corbetta
    • 1
  • A. Baccarelli
    • 2
  • A. Aroldi
    • 3
  • L. Vicentini
    • 4
  • G. B. Fogazzi
    • 3
  • C. Eller-Vainicher
    • 1
  • C. Ponticelli
    • 3
  • P. Beck-Peccoz
    • 1
  • A. Spada
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Endocrine SciencesFondazione Ospedale Maggiore IRCCS, University of MilanItaly
  2. 2.Genetic Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and GeneticsNational Cancer Institute, NIH, DHHSBethesdaUSA
  3. 3.Division of NephrologyOspedale Maggiore IRCCSMilanItaly
  4. 4.Division of Endocrine SurgeryOspedale Maggiore IRCCSMilanItaly

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