Tiered Models of Integrated Academic and Behavioral Support: Effect of Implementation Level on Academic Outcomes

General Article


This exploratory study examined (a) Integrated Systems Model (ISM) implementation levels, and (b) the effect of implementation of the academic and behavioral components of ISM on student academic outcomes. Participants included 2,660 students attending six suburban elementary schools. Hierarchical linear regression was conducted using a control block of three school demographic variables (initial student oral reading fluency from one year prior, percentage of economically disadvantaged students, and percentage of non-minority students), and a block of three implementation variables (academic, behavioral, and overall implementation of ISM). A mean of 55% overall implementation was found, with higher implementation of the behavioral than the academic components of ISM. Three significant regression models were found, and a positive effect of academic implementation emerged. Limitations and implications are discussed.


RtI PBS Integrated Systems Model Implementation Integrity Reading Outcomes 


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Copyright information

© California Association of School Psychologists 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Educational PsychologyMiami UniversityOxfordUSA
  2. 2.Kent State UniversityKentUSA

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