Changing Energy Economics in Nonferrous Hydrometallurgy
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The impact of rising energy costs in hydrometallurgy is reviewed with emphasis on copper and zinc. Electrolytic production processes are most adversely affected. However, switching to less energy-intensive reduction processes will be difficult because high energy costs are also stimulating downsizing and lower metal production growth rates, and capital costs for new plants and plant modifications have risen rapidly. This paper examines economic factors that will guide future hydrometallurgy development.
KeywordsEnergy Cost Hydrometallurgical Process Oxide Copper Zinc Plant Constant Dollar
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