Development and evaluation of biodiesel fuel and by-products from jatropha oil
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Biodiesel is an environmentally friend renewable diesel fuel alternative. Jatropha seeds can be a feedstock to produce a valuable amount of oil to be converted to biodiesel using transesterification reaction. Jatropha plant has been successfully grown in southern Egypt using primary treated municipal wastewater for its irrigation. Abench scale production of biodiesel from Jatropha oil (using methyl alcohol and sodium hydroxide as catalyst) was developed with methyl esters yield of 98 %. Biodiesel was produced on a pilot scale based on the bench scale experiment results with almost the same methyl esters yield of 98 %. The produced biodiesel was evaluated as a fuel and compared with petroleum diesel according to its physical and chemical parameters such as viscosity, flash point, pour point, cloud point, carbon residue, acid value and calorific value. The experimental techniques and product evaluation results show that such properties of the produced biodiesel are near to that of petroleum diesel. A mass balance representing the transesterification process is presented in this study. Glycerol of 85 % purity was produced and evaluated as a valuable byproduct of the process. Free fatty acids and sodium phosphate salts which have industrial interesting are also produced and evaluated.
KeywordsTransesterification biofuel glycerol methanolysis fatty acids pilot plant
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