Advertisement

Gender differences in disordered eating and its correlates

  • J. Elgin
  • M. Pritchard
Brief Report

Abstract

The goal of this study was to examine gender differences in the prevalence of disordered eating and body dissatisfaction as well as examine gender differences in several risk factors: mass media, self-esteem and perfectionism. Three hundred fifty-three undergraduates completed surveys about their body dissatisfaction, disordered eating habits, exposure to and influence of mass media, self-esteem and perfectionistic tendencies. As expected, women experienced more symptoms of disordered eating as well as body dissatisfaction than did their male counterparts. There were also gender differences in the risk factors. For women, mass media, self-esteem, and perfectionism related to disordered eating behaviors, whereas for men, only perfectionism and mass media related to disordered eating behaviors. For women, mass media and self-esteem related to body image dissatisfaction, whereas for men, mass media and perfectionism related to body image dissatisfaction. The results of the present study indicate that risk factors for disordered eating and body dissatisfaction for men and women may be different, which has implications for understanding the etiology of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating and for possible treatment interventions.

Key words

Eating disorders gender body dissatisfaction risk factors 

References

  1. 1.
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, 4th ed, Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 2000.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Polivy J., Herman P.C.: Causes of eating disorders. Ann. Rev. Psychol., 53, 187–213, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pope H.G., Phillips K.A., Olivardia R.: The Adonis complex: The Secret Crisis of Male Body Obsession. New York, The Free Press, 2002.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Twamley E.W., Davis M.C.: The sociocultural model of eating disturbance in young women: The effects of personal attributes and family environment. J. Soc. Clin. Psychol., 18, 467–489, 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Harrison K., Cantor J.: The relationship between media consumption and eating disorders. J. Commun., 47, 40–67, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hawkins N., Richards R.S., Granly H.M,. Stein D.M.: The impact of exposure to the thin-ideal media image on women. J. Treat. Prevent., 12, 35–50, 2004.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Thompson J.K., Heinberg L.J.: The media’s influence on body image disturbance and eating disorders: We’ve reviled them, now can we rehabilitate them? J. Soc. Issues, 55, 339–353, 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Agliata D., Tantleff-Dunn S.: The impact of media exposure on males’ body image. J. Soc. Clin. Psychol., 23, 7–22, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ogden J., Mundray K.: The effect of media on body satisfaction: The role of gender and size. Eur. Eat. Dis. Rev., 4, 171–18, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Green S.P., Pritchard M.E.: Predictors of body image dissatisfaction in adult men and women. Soc. Behav. Person., 31, 215–222, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kalodner C.R.: Media influences on male and female non-eating-disordered college students: A significant issue. Eat. Disord., 5, 47–51, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wiseman C.V., Peltzman B., Halmi K.A., Sunday S.R.: Risk factors for eating disorders: Surprising similarities between middle school boys and girls. Eat. Disord.: J. Treat. Prev., 12, 315–320, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Abell S.C. Richards M.H.: The relationship between body shape satisfaction and self-esteem: An investigation of gender and class differences. J. Youth Adolesc, 25, 691–703, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gleason J.H., Alexander A.M. Somers C.L.: Later adolescents’ reactions to three types of childhood teasing: Relations with self-esteem and body image. Soc. Behav. Person., 28, 472–480, 2000.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Vohs K.D., Bardone A.M., Joiner T.E., Abramson L.Y., Heatherton T.F.: Perfectionism, perceived weight status, and self-esteem interact to predict bulimic symptoms: A model of bulimic symptom development. J. Abnorm. Psychol., 4, 695–700, 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    McCabe M.P., Vincent M.A.: The role of biodevelop-mental and psychological factors in disordered eating among adolescent males and females. Eur. Eat. Dis. Rev., 11, 315–328, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mora-Giral M., Raich-Escursell R.M., Segues V.C., Torras-Claraso J., Huon G.: Bulimia symptoms and risk factors in university students. Eat. Weight Disord., 9, 163–169, 2004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Newns K., Bell L., Thomas S.: The impact of a self-esteem groups for people with eating disorders: An uncontrolled study. Clin. Psychol. Psychother., 10, 64–68, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Olivardia R., Pope H.G., Borowieki J.J., Cohane G.H.: Biceps and body image: The relationship between muscularity and self-esteem, depression, and eating disorder symptoms. Men and Masculinity, 5, 112–120, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Henriques G.R., Calhoun L.G:. Gender and ethnic differences in the relationship between body esteem and self-esteem. J. Psychol., 133, 357–368, 1999.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hopkinson RA., Lock J.: Athletics, perfectionism, and disordered eating. Eat. Weight Disord., 9, 99–106, 2004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ruggiero G.M., Levi D., Ciuna A., Sassaroll S.: Stress situation reveals an association between perfectionism and drive for thinness. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 34, 220–226, 2003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Joiner T.E., Katz J., Heatherton T.F.: Personality features differentiate late adolescent females and males with chronic bulimic symptoms. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 27, 191–197, 2000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Woodside D.B., Bulik CM.: Personality in men with eating eisorders. J. Psychosom. Res., 57, 273–278, 2004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fernandez-Aranda F., Aitken A., Badia A., Gimenez L., Solano R., Collier D., Treasure J., Vallejo J.: Personality and psychopathological traits of males with and eating disorder. Eur. Eat. Disord. Rev., 12, 367–374, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cooper P.J., Taylor M.J., Cooper Z., Fairburn CG.: The development and validation of the body shape questionnaire. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 6, 485–494, 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Garner D.M., Garfinkel P.E.: The eating attitudes test: An index of the symptoms of anorexia nervosa. Psychol. Med., 9, 273–279, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mintz L.B., O'Halloran M.S.: The eating attitudes test: validation with DSM-IV eating disorders criteria. J. Person. Assess., 74, 489–503, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Vartanian L.R., Giant C.L., Passino R.M.: Ally McBeal vs. Arnold Scharzenegger: Comparing mass media, interpersonal feedback and gender as predictors of satisfaction with body thinness and muscularity. Soc. Behav. Person., 29, 711–723, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rosenberg M.: Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, New Jersey, Princeton University Press, 1965.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Garner D.M., Olmstead M.P., Polivy J.: Development and validation of a multidimensional eating disorder inventory for anorexia nervosa and bulimia. Int. J. Eat. Dis., 2, 15–34, 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Brodie D.A., Slade P.D., Riley V.J.: Sex differences in body-image perceptions. Percept. Motor Skills, 72, 73–74, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lewinsohn P.M., Seeley J.R., Moerk K.C., Striegel-Moore R.H.: Gender differences in eating disorder symptoms in young adults. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 32, 426–440, 2002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Editrice Kurtis 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Boise State UniversityBoiseUSA

Personalised recommendations