Mineralium Deposita

, Volume 29, Issue 1, pp 16–29 | Cite as

A fluid inclusion and stable isotope study of the Proterozoic Bidjovagge Au-Cu deposit, Finnmark, northern Norway

  • D. C. Ettner
  • A. Bjørlykke
  • T. Andersen


The Bidjovagge Au-Cu deposit, northern Norway, hosted within a shear zone in the Early Proterozoic Kautokeino greenstone belt, is more base metal-rich than Archaean mesothermal gold deposits. An early phase of gold and copper mineralization is hosted by sheared albitic felsites, within an alteration and oxidation zone to graphitic schists, along with a series of syenodiorite dikes. Fluid inclusions related to gold mineralization comprise varying amounts of H2O, CO2, CH4, and salt, having salinities between 30 to 45 wt % NaCl equivalent. Zonation of the fluid inclusions exists with CH4 predominantly in the ore zone. Microthermometric data indicate that fluid trapping occurred between 300 to 375 °C and 2 to 4 kbars. Carbon-isotope data display a trend from — 0.7%. in the footwall to — 4.6%. within the ore zone. Fluid inclusion and carbon-isotope data suggest that redox reactions between the fluid and the graphitic schists resulted in gold precipitation from chloride complexes.


Shear Zone Clathrate Fluid Inclusion Gold Deposit Footwall 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Andersen, T., Austrheim, H., Burke, E.A.J. (1991) Mineral-fluid-melt interactions in high-pressure shear zones in the Bergen Arcs nappe complex, Caledonides of W. Norway: implications for the fluid regime in Caledonian eclogite-facies metamorphism. Lithos 27: 187–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barnes, H.L. (1979) Solubilities of ore minerals. In: Barnes, H.L. (ed.) Geochemistry of hydrothermal ore deposits. Wiley, New York, pp 404–460Google Scholar
  3. Berthelsen, A., Marker, M. (1986) 1.9-1.8 Ga old strike-slip megashears in the Baltic Shield, and their plate tectonic implications. Tectonophysics 128: 163–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bjørlykke, A., Cumming, G.L., Krstic, D. (1990) New isotopic data from davidites and sulfides in the Bidjovagge gold-copper deposit, Finnmark, northern Norway. Mineral. Petrol. 43: 1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bjørlykke, A., Hagen, R., Søderholm, K. (1987) Bidjovagge copper-gold deposit in Finnmark, Northern Norway. Econ. Geol. 82: 2059–2075CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bjørlykke, A., Nilsen, K.S., Anttonen, R., Ekberg, M. (1993) Geological setting of the Bidjovagge deposit and related gold-copper deposits in the northern part of the Baltic Shield. In: Maurice Y.T. (ed.) Proceedings 8th Quadrenn. IAGOD Symposium, Ottawa, Can. 1990. Schweizerbart’sche Verlags-buchhandberg, Stuttgart, pp 667–680Google Scholar
  7. Bjørlykke, A., Olerud, S., Sandstad, J.S. (1985) Metallogeny of Finnmark, north Norway. Norges Geol. Unders. 403: 183–196Google Scholar
  8. Borisenko, A.S. (1977) Study of the salt composition of solutions of gas-liquid inclusions in minerals by the cryometric method. Geol. Geofizika 18: 16–27Google Scholar
  9. Bottrell, S.H., Shepherd, T.J., Yardley, B.W.D., Dubessy, J. (1988) A fluid inclusion model for the genesis of the ores of the Dolgellau Gold Belt, North Wales. J. Geol. Society London 145: 139–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Burke, E.A.J., Lustenhouwer, W.J. (1987) The application of a multichannel laser Raman microprobe (Microdil-28) to the analysis of fluid inclusions. Chem. Geol. 61: 11–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Burrows, D.R., Spooner, E.T.C. (1990) Archaean intrusion-hosted, stockwork Au-quartz vein mineralization, Lamaque mine, Val d’Or, Quebec. I. Geological and fluid characteristics. In: Robert, F., Sheahan, P.A., Green, S.B. (eds.) Greenstone gold and crustal evolution: NUNA Conference Vol., Geol. Assoc. Canada, pp 139–141Google Scholar
  12. Burruss, R.C. (1981) Analysis of phase equilibria in C-O-H-S fluid inclusions. Mineral. Assoc. Canada Short Course Handbook 6: 39–74Google Scholar
  13. Cameron, E.M. (1989a) Derivation of gold by oxidative metamorphism of a deep ductile shear zone. 1. Conceptual model. J. Geochem. Expl. 31: 135–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cameron, E.M. (1989b) Derivation of gold by oxidative metamorphism of a deep ductile shear zone. 2. Evidence from the Bamble Belt, south Norway. J. Geochem. Expl. 31: 149–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cameron, E.M. (1989c) Scouring of gold from the lower crust. Geology 17:26–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Colvine, A.C. (1989) An empirical model for the formation of Archaean gold deposits: products of final cratonization of the Superior Province, Canada. Econ. Geol. Mon. 6: 37–53Google Scholar
  17. Cox, S.F., Wall, V.J., Etheridge, M.A., Potter, T.F. (1991) Deformation and metamorphism processes in the formation of mesothermal vein-hosted gold deposits—examples from the Lachlan Fold Belt in central Victoria, Australia. Ore Geol. Reviews 6: 391–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Crawford, M.L. (1981) Phase equilibria in aqueous fluid inclusions. Mineral. Assoc. Canada Short Course Handbook 6: 75–100Google Scholar
  19. Crerar, D.A., Barnes, H.L. (1976) Ore solution chemistry V. Solubilities of chalcopyrite and chalcocite assemblages in hydrothermal solution at 200° to 350°C. Econ. Geol. 71: 772–794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dubessy, J., Poty, B., Ramboz, C. (1989) Advances in C-O-H-N-S fluid geochemistry based on micro-Raman spectrometric analysis of fluid inclusions. Eur. J. Mineral. 1: 517–534Google Scholar
  21. Ettner, D.C., Lindblom, S., Karlsen, D. Identification and implications of light hydrocarbon fluid inclusions from the Proterozoic Bidjovagge Au-Cu deposit, Finnmark, Norway (in preparation)Google Scholar
  22. Friedman, I., O’Neil, J.R. (1977) Compilation of stable isotope fractionation factors of geochemical interest. In: Fleischer, M. (ed.) Data of geochemistry, 6th edn. US Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 440-KK, 12 ppGoogle Scholar
  23. Gaál, G., Sundblad, K. (1990) Metallogeny of gold in the Fennoscandian Shield. Mineral. Deposita 25: 104–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gatehouse, B.M., Greay, I.E., Campbell, I.H., Kelly, P. (1978) The crystal structure of loveringite—a new member of the crichtonite group. Am. Mineral. 63: 28–36Google Scholar
  25. Gjelsvik, T. (1957a) Albittrike bergarter i den karelske fjellkjede på Finnmarksvidda, Nord-Norge. Norges Geol. Unders. 203: 60–72Google Scholar
  26. Gjelsvik, T. (1957b) Epigenetisk koppermineralisering på Finnmarksvidda. Norges Geol. Unders. 203: 49–59Google Scholar
  27. Goellnicht, N.M., Groves, D.I., McNaughton, N.J., Dimo, G. (1989) An epigenetic origin for the Telfer gold deposit, Western Australia. Econ. Geol. Monogr. 6: 151–167Google Scholar
  28. Groves, D.I., Foster, R.P. (1991) Archaean lode gold deposits. In: Foster, R.P. (ed.) Gold metallogeny and exploration. Blackie, London, pp 63–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Groves, D.I., Phillips, N., Ho, S.E., Houstoun, S.M., Standing, C.A. (1987) Craton-scale distribution of Archaean greenstone gold deposits. Predictive capacity of the metamorphic model. Econ. Geol. 82: 2045–2058CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Haas, J.L. (1976) Physical properties of the coexisting phases and thermochemical properties of the H2O component in boiling NaCl solutions. US Geol. Survey Bull. 1421-A, 73 ppGoogle Scholar
  31. Hagen, R. (1977) En malmgeologisk undersøkelse av Bidjovaggemalmen og dens sidebergart med henblikk på å kartlegge opptreden av gullet i forekomsten. Unpublished Cand. Scient. Thesis, Trondheim, Norges Tekniske Høyskole, 90 ppGoogle Scholar
  32. Hayashi, K., Ohmoto, H. (1991) Solubility of gold in NaCl- and H2S-bearing aqueous solutions at 250–350 °C. Geochim. Cosmochim. 55: 2111–2126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Helgeson, H.C. (1969) Thermodynamics of hydrothermal systems at elevated temperatures and pressures. Am. J. Sci. 267: 729–804CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Henley, R.W. (1973) Solubility of gold in hydrothermal chloride solutions. Chem. Geol. 11: 73–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hodgson, C.J., MacGeehan, P.J. (1982) A review of the geological characteristics of ‘gold-only’ deposits in the Superior Province of the Canadian Shield. In: Hodder, R.W., Petruk, W. (eds.) Geology of Canadian gold deposits. Can. Inst. of Mining and Metallurgy Spec. Vol. 24: 211–229Google Scholar
  36. Hollander, N.B. (1979) The geology of the Bidjovagge mining field, western Finnmark, Norway. Norsk Geol. Tidsskr. 59: 327–336Google Scholar
  37. Hollister, L.S., Burruss, R.C. (1976) Phase equilibria in fluid inclusions from the Khtada metamorphic complex. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 40: 163–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Holloway, J.R. (1981) Compositions and volumes of supercritical fluids in the earth’s crust. Mineral. Assoc. Canada Short Course Handbook 6: 13–38Google Scholar
  39. Holmsen, P., Padget, P., Pehkonen, E. (1957) The Precambrian geology of Vest-Finnmark, northern Norway: Norges Geol. Unders. 210, 107 ppGoogle Scholar
  40. Johnson, J.W., Oelkers, E.H., Helgeson, H.C. (1991) SUPCRT92: a software package for calculating the standard molar thermodynamic properties of minerals, gases, aqueous species, and reactions from 1 to 5000 bars and 0° to 1000°C. University of California, Berkeley, 101 ppGoogle Scholar
  41. Kerkhof, A.M. van den (1990) Isochoric phase diagrams in the systems CO2-CH4 and CO2-N2: application to fluid inclusions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 54: 621–629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kerkhof, A.M. van den (1991) Heterogeneous fluids in high-grade siliceous marbles of Pusula (SW Finland). Geologische Rundschau 80: 249–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kimberley, M.M. (1978) High-temperature uranium geochemistry. Mineral. Assoc. Canada Short Course Handbook 3: 101–104Google Scholar
  44. Krill, A.G., Bergh, S., Lindahl, I., Mearns, E.W., Often, M., Olerud, S., Olesen, O., Sandstad, J.S., Siedlecka, A., Solli, A. (1985) Rb-Sr, U-Pb and Sm-Nd isotopic dates from Precambrian rocks of Finnmark. Norges Geol. Unders. 403: 37–54Google Scholar
  45. Krill, A.G., Kesola, R., Sjöstrand, T., Stephens, M.B. (1988) Metamorphic, structural and isotopic age map, northern Fennoscandia. Geol. Surveys of Finland, Norway and Sweden, 1: 1,000, 000Google Scholar
  46. Lindblom, S., Martinsson, O. (1990) Fluids associated with Cu-Au mineralization in the Kiruna greenstone belt at Viscaria and Pahtohavare, northern Sweden. In: Robert, F., Sheahan, P.A., Green, S.B. (eds.) Greenstone gold and crustal evolution: NUNA Conference Vol., Geol. Assoc. Canada, p 185Google Scholar
  47. Martinsson, O. (1992) Greenstone hosted Au-Cu ores: the Viscaria and Pahtohavare sulfide deposits and the stratigraphy of the Kiruna greenstones. M.S. thesis, Luleå University Tech., Sweden, 79 pGoogle Scholar
  48. Mathiesen, C.O. (1970) An occurrence of unusual minerals at Bidjovagge, northern Norway. Norges Geol. Unders. 266: 86–104Google Scholar
  49. Mullis, J. (1979) The system methane-water as a geologic thermometer and barometer from the external part of the Central Alps. Bull. Minéral. 102: 526–536Google Scholar
  50. Mullis, J. (1987) Fluid inclusion studies during very low-grade metamorphism. In: Frey, M. (ed.) Low temperature metamorphism: Blackie, Glasgow, pp 162–199Google Scholar
  51. Neall, F.B., Phillips, G.N. (1987) Fluid-wall rock interaction in an Archaean hydrothermal gold deposit: a thermodynamic model for the Hunt mine, Kambalda. Econ. Geol. 82: 1679–1694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Newton, R.C. (1990) Fluids and shear zones in the deep crust. Tectonophysics 182: 21–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Nguyen, P.T., Booth, S.A., Both, R.A., James, P.R. (1989) The White Devil gold deposit, Tennant Creek, Northern Territory, Australia. Econ. Geol. Mon. 6: 180–192Google Scholar
  54. Nicholls, J., Crawford, M.L. (1985) FORTRAN programs for calculation of fluid properties from microthermometric data on fluid inclusions. Computers Geosci. 11: 619–645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Nilsen, K.S., Bjørlykke, A. (1991) Geological setting of the Bidjovagge gold-copper deposit, Finnmark, northern Norway. Geol. Foreningens i Stockholm Forhandlingar 113: 60–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Nurmi, P.A., Lestinen, P., Niskavaara, H. (1991) Geochemical characteristics of mesothermal gold deposits in the Fennoscandian Shield, and a comparison with selected Canadian and Australian deposits. Geol. Survey of Finland 351, 83 ppGoogle Scholar
  57. Olesen, O., Roberts, D., Henkel, H., Lile, O.B., Torsvik, T.H. (1990) Aeromagnetic and gravimetric interpretation of regional structural features in the Caledonides of West Finnmark and North Troms, northern Norway. Norges Geol. Unders. 419: 1–24Google Scholar
  58. Ohmoto, H., Rye, R.O. (1979) Isotopes of sulfur and carbon. In: Barnes, H.L. (ed.) Geochemistry of hydrothermal ore deposits. Wiley, New York, pp 509–567Google Scholar
  59. Pharaoh, T.C., Brewer, T.S. (1990) Spatial and temporal diversity of early Proterozoic volcanic sequences—comparisons between the Baltic and Laurentian shields. Precambrian Res. 47:169–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Rich, R.A., Holland, H.D., Petersen, U. (1977) Hydrothermal uranium deposits. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 264 ppGoogle Scholar
  61. Robert, F., Kelly, W.C. (1987) Ore-forming fluids in Archaean gold-bearing quartz veins at the Sigma mine, Abitibi greenstone belt, Quebec, Canada. Econ. Geol. 82: 1464–1482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Roedder, E. (1984) Fluid inclusions. In: Ribbe, P.H. (ed.) Reviews in Mineralogy, vol. 12. Mineralogical Society of America. Book Crafters, Chelsea, Michigan, 646 ppGoogle Scholar
  63. Sandstad, J.S. (1983) Berggrunnsgeologisk kartlegging av prekambrisk grunnfjell innen kartbladet Mållejus, Kvænangen/Kautokeino, Troms/Finnmark: Norges Geol. Unders. Unpublished report. 84.095, pp 73–76Google Scholar
  64. Sandstad, J.S. (1985) Geologisk berggrunnskart Mållejus 1833 4, 1: 50000. Norges Geol. Unders.Google Scholar
  65. Sibson, R.H. (1977) Fault rocks and fault mechanisms. J. Geol. Soc. London 1: 191–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Siedlecka, A., Iversen, L, Krill, A.G., Lieungh, B., Often, M., Sandstad, J.S., Solli, A. (1985) Lithostratigraphy and correlation of the Archaean and Early Proterozoic rocks of Finnmarksvidda and the Sørvaranger district. Norges Geol. Unders. 403: 7–36Google Scholar
  67. Skiöld, T. (1988) Implications of new U-Pb zircon chronology to early Proterozoic crustal accretion in northern Sweden. Precambrian Res. 8: 147–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Tanger, J.C. IV, Pitzer, K.S. (1989) Thermodynamics of NaCl-H2O: a new equation of state for the near-critical region and comparison with other equations for adjoining regions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 53: 973–987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Taylor, H.P.Jr. (1979) Oxygen and hydrogen isotope relationships in hydrothermal mineral deposits. In: Barnes, H.L. (ed.) Geochemistry of hydrothermal ore deposits. Wiley, New York, pp 236–277Google Scholar
  70. Touret, J.L.R. (1981) Fluid inclusions in high-grade metamorphic rock. Mineral. Assoc. Canada Short Course Handbook 6: 182–208Google Scholar
  71. Trommsdorff, V., Skippen, G. (1988) Brines and metasomatism. Rendic. Soc. Ital. Mineral. Petrol. 43: 15–43Google Scholar
  72. Vearncombe, J.R., Barley, M.E., Eisenlohr, B.N., Groves, D.I., Houstoun, S.M., Skwarnecki, M.S., Grigson. M.W., Partington, G.A. (1989) Structural controls on mesothermal gold mineralization: examples from the Archaean terranes of Southern Africa and Western Australia. Econ. Geol. Monogr. 6: 124–134Google Scholar
  73. Vik, E. (1985) En geologisk undersøkelse av kobbermineral-iseringene i Alta-Kvænangenvinduet, Troms og Finnmark, Unpublished Can. Scient. Thesis, Trondheim, Norges Tekniske Høyskole, 295 ppGoogle Scholar
  74. Walsh, J.F., Kesler, S.E., Duff, D., Cloke, P.L. (1988) Fluid inclusion geochemistry of high-grade, vein-hosted gold ore at the Pamour mine, Porcupine camp, Ontario. Econ. Geol. 83: 1347–1367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Wedekind, M.R., Large, R.R., Williams, B.T. (1989) Controls on high-grade mineralization at Tennant Creek, Northern Territory, Australia, Econ. Geol. Monogr. 6: 168–179Google Scholar
  76. Wood, P.C., Burrows, D.R., Thomas, A.V., Spooner, E.T.C. (1986) The Hollinger-McIntyre Au-quartz vein system, Timmons, Ontario, Canada: geological characteristics, fluid properties and light stable isotope geochemistry. In: Macdonald, A.J. (ed.) Proceedings of Gold ′86. An International Symposium on the Geology of Gold: Toronto, 1986, pp 56–80 Editorial handling: A.E. FallickGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. C. Ettner
    • 1
  • A. Bjørlykke
    • 1
  • T. Andersen
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute for GeologyUniversity of OsloOsloNorway
  2. 2.Mineralogical-Geological MuseumUniversity of OsloOsloNorway

Personalised recommendations