Protection of biodiesel and oil from degradation by natural antioxidants of Egyptian Jatropha

  • G. El Diwani
  • S. El Rafie
  • S. Hawash


Residue of methanolic extract of Egyptian Jatropha curcas contains bioactive substances such as phenolic compounds, which succeeded to be used as natural antioxidants for the protection of oils and their corresponding biodiesel against oxidative deterioration. In the present work, the residue of Jatropha roots were extracted with methanol and resulting residues, were investigated regarding their content of total phenolic compounds by folin-Cioalteau assay. Further, the antioxidant activities of the extracts were characterized by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical method and proved remarkable results. Oxidation stability of Jatropha oil, used fried oil and olive oil and their corresponding biodiesel obtained by conventional transesterification were tested using thermal oxidation. Natural antioxidants such as (α-trocopherol), synthetic antioxidants as butylated hydroxytoluene and natural Jatropha root extract were used in the present study in comparison to investigate their addition effect on the oxidative stability of oils and their corresponding biodiesel. In the rapied thermal treatment test, results showed that addition of butylated hydroxytoluene 0.25 % was able to stabilize Jatropha oil 6 h, but poorly stabiliz biodiesel. Addition of 0.25 % α-trocopherol to Jatropha oil showed less oxidation stability after 2 h thermal treatment. Crude root extract addition at 0.25% to Jatropha oil showed good stability up to 4 h thermal treatment while addition of root extract at 0.25 % to biodiesel showed better stability up to 6 h thermal treatment. Besides addition of 220 ppm crude root extract to biodiesel was enough sufficient to occure oxidative stabilization. Also Jatropha root residue addition at 400 ppm was effective antioxidant for fresh Jatropha oil.


Phenolic compounds Thermal stability Transesterification Vegetable oil 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ali, Y.; Hanna, M. A.; Leticus, L. I., (1995). Emissions and power characteristicsof diesel engines on methyl soyate and diesel fuel blends. Bioresou. Tech., 52(2) 185–195 (11 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bej, S. K., (2002). Performance evaluation of hydro processing catalyst - a review of experimental techniques. Energ. Fuel, 16 (3), 774–784 (11 pages). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bouaid, A.; Martinez, M.; Aracil, J., (2007). Long storage stability of biodiesel from vegetable and used frying oils. J. Fuel, 86 (16), 2596–2602 (7 pages). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dunn, R. O., (2001). Alternative jet fuels from vegetable oils. T. ASAE, 44 (6), 1751–1757 (7 pages). Google Scholar
  5. Dunn, R. O.; Knoth, G., (2003). Oxidative stability of biodiesel in blends with jet fuel by analysis of oil stability index. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 80 (10), 1047–1048 (2 pages). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gertz, C.; Klosternmann, S., Kochhar, S. P., (2000). Testing and comparing oxidative stability of vegetable oils and fats at frying temperature. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Tech., 1 02 (8-9), 543–551 (9 pages). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gertz, C.; Kochhar, S. P., (2001). A new method to determine oxidative stability of vegetable fats and oils at simulated frying temperature. OCL-Ol Corps Gras Li., 8 (1), 82–88 (7 pages). Google Scholar
  8. Gubitz, G. M.; Mittlebeach, M.; Trabi, M., (1999). Exploitation of tropical oil seed plant Jatropha curcas L. Biosource Tech., 67 (1), 73–82 (10 pages). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hawash, S.; Kamal, N.; Zaher, F.; Kenawi, O.; El Diwani, G., (2009). Biodiesel fuel from Jatropha oil via non-catalytic supercritical methanol transesterification. Fuel, 88 (3), 579–582 (4 pages). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hui, Y. H., (1996). Bailey’s industrial oil and fat products 5th. Ed., 4, 411.Google Scholar
  11. Jeong, S. M.; Kim, S. Y.; Kim, D. R.; Jo, S. C.; Nam, K. C.; Ahn, D. U.; Lee, S. C., (2004). Effect of heat treatment on the antioxidant activity of extracts from citrus peels. J. Agr. Food Chem., 52 (11), 3389–3393 (5 pages). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kaushik, N.; Kumar, K.; Kumar, S.; Kaushik, N.; Roy, S., (2007). Genetic variability and divergence studies in seed traits and oil content of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L. ) accessions. Biomass Bioenerg., 31 (7), 497–502 (6 pages). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Knothe, G., (2007). Some aspects of biodiesel oxidative stability. Fuel Process. Tech. 88 (7), 669–677 (9 pages). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kumara, R.; Sharma, M.; Sinharay, S.; Sarin, R., (2004). Effect of alkyl chain on biodiesel characteristics, SAF Publication No 2004-28-027.Google Scholar
  15. Lee, J.; Chung, H.; Chaug, P. S.; Lee, J. H., (2007). Development of a method predicting the oxidation stability of edible oils using 2,2-diphenyl -1-picrylhydrazl (DPPH). Food Chem., 103 (2), 662–669 (8 pages). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ling, Y. C.; May, C. Y.; Foon, C. S.; Ngan, M. A.; Hock, C. C.; Basiron, Y., (2006). The effect of natural and synthetic antioxidants on the oxidation stability of palm diesel. Fuel, 85 (5-6), 867–870 (4 pages). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lui, Q.; Yao, H., (2007). Antixidant activities of barly seeds extracts. Food Chem., 102(3) 732–737 (6 pages). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Makkar, H. P. S.; Beaker, K.; Sporer, F.; Wink, M., (1997). Studies on nutritive potential and toxic constituents of different provenances of Jatropha curcas. J. Agr. Food Chem., 45 (8), 3152–3157 (6 pages). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mc Cormick, R. L.; Ratcliff, M.; Moens, L.; Lawrence, R. (2007). Several factors affecting the stabilityof biodiesel in standard accelerated tests. Fuel process. Tech., 88 (7), 651–657 (7 pages). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mc Cormick, R. L.; Terry, B.; Natarajan, M., (2006). Impact of biodiesel blends on fuel system components durability, SAE Techn. Doc. No. 2006-01-3279.Google Scholar
  21. Salimon, J.; Abdullah, R., (2008). Physiocochemical properties of Malaysian Jatropha curcas seed oil. Sains Maysiana, 37 (4), 379–382 (4 pages). Google Scholar
  22. Sarin, R.; Sharma, M.; Sinharay, S.; Malhtra, R. K., (2006). Jatropha — Palm biodiesel blends an optimum mix for Asia. Fuel, 86(10-11) 1365–1371 (7 pages). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Shahidi, E., (1997). Natural antioxidants: An overview, In: Natural Antioxidants, Chemistry, Health Effects and Applications, Ed. F. Shahidi, AOCS Press Champaign, Illinois, USA, 1–10.Google Scholar
  24. Shay, E. G., (1993). Diesel fuel from vegetable oils: Status and opportunities. Biomass Bioenerg., 4 (4), 227–242 (16 pages). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Srivastava, A.; Prasad, R., (2000). Triglycerides-based diesel fuels. Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev., 4(2) 111–133 (23 pages). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Tarandjiska, R. B.; Marekov, I. N.; Niklilova-Damyanova, B. M.; Amidzhin, B. S., (1996). Determination of triacylglycerol classes and molecular species in seed oils with high content of linoleic and linolenic acids. J. Sci. Food Agr., 72 (4), 403–410 (8 pages). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Van Gepen, J. H.; Hammond, E. G.; Yu, L., Monyem, A. (1997). Determining the influence of contaminants on biodiesel properties, SAE Techn. Doc. No. 971685.Google Scholar
  28. Waynick, J. A., (2005). Characterization of biodiesel oxidation and oxidation products: CRC Project No. AVFL - 2b. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP -540- 39096.Google Scholar
  29. Westbrook, S. R., (2005). An evaluation and comparison of test methods to measure the oxidative stability of net biodiesel. Subcontract report. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/SR-540-38983.Google Scholar
  30. Wijtmans, M.; Pratt, D. A.; Brinkhorst, J.; Serwa R., Volgimigli L.; Pedulli, G. F.; Porter, N. A., (2004). Synthesis and reactivity of some 6-substituted-2,4-dimethyl 1-3-pyridinols, a novel class of chain breaking antioxidants. J. Org. Chem., 69 (26), 9215–9223 (9 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringNational Research CenterEgypt

Personalised recommendations