Removal of Congo red from textile wastewater by ozonation
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Congo red, which has a complex molecular structure with various diazo aromatic groups, is widely used in textile industry as an anionic dye. The purpose of this study was to investigate the degradation of Congo red in laboratory solution which had the chemical properties of the rinse waters of textile manufacturing dye-houses and the samples with Congo red alone wastewater by ozonation and to optimize the reaction parameters such as pH and time which influence the efficiencies of total organic carbon, total kjeldahl nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand removal. Ozonation of Congo red dye were carried out in a semi-batch reactor with constant ozone flow rate and concentration of 23 mL/sec and 13.6 mg/L, respectively. Decolorization was complete within a few minutes of ozonation possibly due to the cleavage of chromophore groups. It was observed that its structural destruction occurs predominantly at higher pHs. The reduction of chemical oxygen demand and destruction of the dye was more than 60 % and 42 %, respectively. Total kjeldahl nitrogen removal was accompanied by slight changes in nitrogen oxides. It can be deduced from the experimental results that: (a) the mineralization is very weak; (b) the reaction follows the indirect mechanism; i.e., the interaction of hydroxyl radicals with the dye and (c) the nitrification is rather predominant. Biological oxygen demand is declined in simulated alkalic and neutral samples respectively. At 13.6 mg O3/L, the biological oxygen demand levels were significantly enhanced. This might be attributable to the enhancement of its biodegradation at alkaline pHs.
KeywordsBiological factor total organic carbon chemical oxygen demand azo dyes decolorization effluents
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