Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Niger Delta soil: contamination sources and profiles
- 94 Downloads
The distribution and sources of PAHs in soil as well as PAHs profiles have been investigated in areas with anthropogenic pollution in the Niger Delta (Nigeria) such as Warri and Ughelli. PAHs were identified in 21 soil samples (0–10cm upper layer) collected in May, 2003. The typical total PAHs level in Niger Delta soil ranged from 182 ± 112 - to - 433 ±256 íg/kg dw. PAH concentrations in soil samples from Warri Refinery, Tanker Loading point and Ugboko via Rapele oil field were quite high ( the mean ÓPAH concentrations were 433, 402 and 384 íg/kg dry weight respectively). The dominant PAHs in soil samples were pyrene, naphthalene and benzo[k]fluoranthene. The soil total PAHs (PAHtot.) concentration, normalized to organic carbon content (OC), ranged from 11.4 to 47.2 mg PAHtot. /kg OC; and showed that organic matter of the soil samples from Quality Control Centre, Ugelli West is highly contaminated with PAHs and had a value of 47.2 ± 31.2 mg PAHtot./kg OC. Two and three ring aromatic hydrocarbons predominated in soil samples from Ughelli West, Tanker Loading point and Delta Steel Company, which is indicative of petrogenic origin.
KeywordsPAHs soil profile GC/MS Niger Delta Nigeria
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Aweto, A., (2002). Outline Geography of Urhoboland in Nigeria’s Niger Delta. Historical Society, 1–8.Google Scholar
- IARC, (1987). IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans. Overall evaluation of carcinogenity. an updating of IAPC monographs volumes 1–42. Suppl. 7. International Agency for Research on cancer, Lyon, France.Google Scholar
- Mackay, D., Shui, W. Y. and Ma, K.C., (1992). Illustrated Handbook of Physical-Chemical Properties and Environmental Fate of Organic Chemicals. Lewis, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
- Means, J. C., Hassett, J. J., Wood, S. G., Banwart, W. L., Ali, S. and Khan, A., (1980). Sorption properties of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and sediments. heterocyclic and substituted compounds. In. Bjorseth A. and Dennis A. J. (Eds.), Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Chemistry and Biological Effects. Battelle Press, 395-404, Ohio, USA.Google Scholar
- Neff, J. M., (1979). Polycyclic aromatic hyrocarbons in the aquatic environment. Sources, fate and biological effects. Applied Science Publishers, London, UK.Google Scholar
- Soclo, H. H., Garrigues, P. and Ewald, M., (1986). Analyse quantitative des hydrocarburesaromatiques polycyliques dans les sediments recents par chromatographie en phase liquide et detection specrofluorometrique. Analusis 14(7), 344–350.Google Scholar
- Wakeham, S. G., Schaffner, C. and Giger, W., (1980). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in recent lake sediment-II. Compounds derived from biogenic precursors during early diagenesis. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 43, 27–33.Google Scholar
- Wang, D. T. and Meresz, O. (1982). Occurrence and potential uptake of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons of highway traffic origin by proximally grown food crops. In: Cooke M., Dennis A. J., Fisher G. L., (Eds). Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons: physical and biological chemistry. Springer Verlag, 885-896, New York, USA.Google Scholar