Aging Clinical and Experimental Research

, Volume 7, Issue 3, pp 188–190 | Cite as

The clock drawing test as a cognitive screening tool for elderly patients in an acute-care hospital

  • A. Ben-Yehuda
  • Netta Bentur
  • G. Friedman
Studies on Geriatric Assessment Instrument


Clock drawing geriatric assessment 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Manton K.G.: The linkage of health status changes and disability. Compr. Gerontol. 1:16–24, 1987.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    McLean S.: Assessing dementia: difficulties, definitions and differential diagnosis. Aust. N.Z. J. Psychiatry. 21: 142–174, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Davies A.M.: Epidemiology of Senile Dementia in Jerusalem. Report of First Phase: Design of a Screening Instrument for Cognitive Dysfunction in the Elderly, May 1, 1985–July 31, 1987. JDC-Brookdale Institute, Jerusalem, 1988.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kiernan R.J., Mueller J., Langsten J.W., Van Dyke C.: The Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination: a brief but differentiated approach to cognitive assessment. Ann. Intern. Med. 107: 481–485, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Strain J.J., Fulop G., Lebovits A.: Screening devices for diminished cognitive capacity. Gen. Hosp. Psychiatry 10: 16–23, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Huntzinger J.A., Rosse R.B., Schwartz B.L., Ross L., Deutsch S.: Clock drawing in the screening assessment of cognitive impairment in an ambulatory care setting: a preliminary report. Gen. Hosp. Psychiatry 14: 142–144, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Folstein M.F., Folstein S.E., McHugh P.R.: Mini-mental State: a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J. Psychiatr. Res. 12: 189–198, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Folstein M.F., Anthony J.C., Parhad I., Duffy B., Gruenberg E.: The meaning of cognitive impairment in the elderly. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 33: 228–235, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Anthony J.C., Le Reschel, Niaz U., Von Korff M., Folstein M.: Limits of the Mini-Mental State as a screening test for dementia among hospital patients. Psychol. Med. 12: 397–408, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    McKhann G., Drachman D., Folstein M., Katzman R., Price D., Stadlan E.M.: Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease: report of the NINCDS-ADRDA work group under the auspices of Department of Health and Human Services Task Force on Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology 34: 939–944, 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wolf-Klein G.P.: New Alzheimer’s drug expands your options in symptom management. Geriatrics 48: 26–36, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wolf-Klein G.P., Silverstone F.A., Levy A.P., Brod M.S.: Screening for Alzheimer’s disease by clock drawing. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 37: 730–734, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wolf-Klein G.P., Brod M.S., Levy A.P.: A rapid screening test for Alzheimer’s disease. Gerontologist 27: 21A, 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sunderland T., Hill J.L., Mellow A.M., Lawlor B., Gunder-sheimer J., Newhouse P., Grafman J.: Clock drawing in Alzheimer’s disease: a novel measure of dementia severity. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 37: 725–729, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tuokko H., Hadjistavropoulos T., Miller J.A., Beatüe B.L.: The Clock Test: a sensitive measure to differentiate normal elderly from those with Alzheimer disease. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 40: 579–584, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mendez M.F., Ala T.A., Underwood K.L.: Development of scoring criteria for the Clock Drawing Task in Alzheimer’s disease. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 40: 1095–1099, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Burke W.J., Roccaforte W.H., Wengel S.P.: Letter to the Editor. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 41: 576, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Watson Y.I., Arfken C.L., Birge S.J.: Clock completion: an objective screening test for dementia. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 41: 1235–1240, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    National Institutes of Health: National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference Statement: Geriatric assessment methods for clinical decision-making. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 36: 342–347, 1988.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    American College of Physicians, Health and Public Policy Committee: Comprehensive functional assessment for elderly patients. Ann. Intern. Med. 108: 70–72, 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rubenstein L.Z., Stuck A.E., Siu A.L., Wieland G.D.: Impacts of geriatric evaluation and management programs on defined outcomes: overview of the evidence. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 39 (Suppl): 8S–16S, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    American Geriatric Society Public Policy Committee: Comprehensive geriatric assessment. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 37: 473–474, 1989.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lipowski Z.J.: Delirium (acute confessional states). J.A.M.A. 258: 1789–1792, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lipowski Z.J.: Delirium in the elderly patient. N. Engl. J. Med. 320: 578–582, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Magaziner J., Simonsick E.M., Kashner T.M.: Survival experience of aged hip fracture patients. Am. J. Public Health 79: 274–278, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rabins P.V., Folstein M.F.: Delirium and dementia: diagnostic criteria and fatality rates. Br. J. Psychiatry 140: 149–153, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ainslie N.K., Murden R.A.: Effect of education on the clock drawing dementia screen in non-demented elderly patients. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 41: 249–252, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Death J., Douglas D., Kenny R.A.: Comparison of clock drawing with Mini Mental State Examination as a screening test in elderly acute hospital admissions. Postgrad. Med. J. 69: 696–700, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Internal Publishing Switzerland 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Ben-Yehuda
    • 1
  • Netta Bentur
    • 2
  • G. Friedman
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Medicine, Geriatric Consultation UnitHadassah University HospitalEin Karem Jerusalem
  2. 2.JDC-Brookdale Institute of Gerontology and Human DevelopmentJ.D.C. Hill, JerusalemIsrael

Personalised recommendations