Aging Clinical and Experimental Research

, Volume 6, Issue 1, pp 43–48 | Cite as

Androgyny and psychological well-being among older and younger Japanese adults

  • Yoshiko Shimonaka
  • K. Nakazato
  • R. Marushima
Original Article


The present study examined Gutmann’s role reversal theory and Sinnott’s role blurring (androgyny) theory. A total of 384 Japanese community aged were compared to 289 students using the Bern Sex Role Inventory. The Rosenberg Self- Esteem Scale was used to measure psychological well- being. Masculinity was higher among men than women, and the old showed higher femininity than theyoung. However, no significant cohort by sex interaction was observed in either masculine or feminine scores. To examine the relationship between androgyny and psychological well- being, subjects were classified into androgynous, masculine, feminine and undifferentiated groups. Analysis of variance (sex role typing × sex × cohort) on self- esteem revealed a significant sex role typing effect. The androgynous men and women possessed the highest self- esteem, followed by the masculine, feminine and undifferentiated men and women, in this order. Our results supported Sinnott’s but not Gutmann’s theory. (Aging Clin. Exp. Res. 6: 43- 48, 1994)


Androgyny psychological self-esteem sex role well-being 


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Copyright information

© Springer Internal Publishing Switzerland 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoshiko Shimonaka
    • 1
  • K. Nakazato
    • 1
  • R. Marushima
    • 2
  1. 1.Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of GerontologyItabashiku, Tokyo-173Japan
  2. 2.Kobe CollegeNishinomiyaJapan

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