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Results in Mathematics

, Volume 47, Issue 3–4, pp 305–326

# Relations between the K-loop and the defect of an absolute plane

• Helmut Karzel
• Mario Marchi
Article

## Abstract

Let $${\cal P}$$ be the point set of an absolute plane, let $${\cal {\tilde P}}$$ be the set of all point reflections, let ℳ, resp. ℳ+, be the group of all, resp. of all proper, motions and let
$$^\sim:{\cal P\times P\rightarrow \tilde P};\ \ \ (a,\ b)\mapsto\ \widetilde {a,\ b}$$
be the map where $${\widetilde {a,\ b}}$$ denotes the uniquely determined point-reflection interchanging a and b.
Then
$$\delta\:\ {\cal P}^{3}\rightarrow {\cal M}^{+};\ \ \ (a,b,c)\mapsto \delta_{a;b,c}\:=\ {\tilde a}\ {\rm o}\ \widetilde {a,\ b}\ {\rm o}\ \widetilde {b,\ c}\ {\rm o}\ \widetilde {c,\ a}$$
is called the defect function, or shortly the defect.

We show that δa;b,c is a rotation around the point a where the angle of δa;b,c is exactly the angle defect of the triangle (a, b, c) (cfr. 3.5).

After fixing a point $$o\ \in {\cal P}$$ and setting $$a+b\:=\widetilde {o,\ a}\ {\rm o}\ {\tilde o}\ (b),\ ({\cal P},+)$$ becomes a K-loop and the so called precession function
$$\delta_{a,b}\:=\ \big((a+b)^{+}\big)^{-1}\ {\rm o}\ a^{+}\ {\rm o}\ b^+$$
of the loop ($${\cal P}, +)$$ coincides with the defect of the triangle (o, a, −b) (cfr. (4.4.1)), hence δa,b = δo;a,−b for all $$a, b \in {\cal P}$$.
With the order relation of the absolute plane we associate an orientation function
$$\Omega\:\ \Delta\ \times \Delta \rightarrow \lbrace -1,+1\rbrace$$
defined on the pairs of triangles (cfr. (2.8)). If (a, b, c) ∈ Δ is a triangle and d a point of the line $$\overline {b,\ c}$$ 1, then (cfr. (3.9.2)):
$$\delta_{a;b,c}\ {\rm o}\ \delta_{a;c,d}=\delta_{a;b,d}$$
and moreover, if d is even a point of the open segment ]b, c[ then (cfr. (2.8.5)):
$$\Omega(a,\ b,\ c;\ a,\ b,\ d)=\Omega(a,\ b,\ d;\ a,\ d,\ c)=+1.$$

Thus the angle defect of the triangle (a, b, c) is the sum of the angle defects of the triangles (a, b, d) and (a, d, c).

## Keywords

Rotation Angle Proper Motion Elliptic Case Ordinary Case Hyperbolic Case
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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## References

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## Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel 2005

## Authors and Affiliations

• Helmut Karzel
• 1
• Mario Marchi
• 2
1. 1.Techn. Universität München Fakultät für MathematikMünchen
2. 2.BresciaItaly