Welding in the World

, Volume 55, Issue 11–12, pp 21–30 | Cite as

Weldability of Novel Fe-Mn High-Strength Steels for Automotive Applications

  • Daniel Keil
  • Manuela Zinke
  • Helge Pries
Peer-Reviewed Section


High-Mn austenitic steels with TWIP and TRIP effect are characterized by an exceptional combination of high plasticity and high strength making them ideal for use in crash-relevant automobile components. At this point, European and international steel producers are facing the market launch of these steels, without detailed information regarding their weldability. This paper presents results from a publicly funded research project concerning the weldability of different systems of uncoated Fe-Mn alloys for gas metal arc welding. The different alloying concepts were produced by the Max Planck Institute for Iron Research GmbH in Düsseldorf specifically for this research project. For gas metal arc welding some newly developed metal cored wires were used and the heat input was varied by using different arc welding processes (short arc, cold metal transfer, cold metal transfer + pulsed arc). In addition to the metallurgical characteristics of the base metals and welds (segregation behaviour, grain size) the paper presents results on the quality of the welds depending on welding process and filler material.

IIW-Thesaurus keywords

Austenite GMA welding High strength steels Manganese Tensile tests Thermal cycling Welded joints 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    Schröder T.: Ausgekochter Stahl für das Auto von Morgen, Steel for the cars of tomorrow, MaxPlanckResearch, 2004, vol. 36, no. 03, pp. 36–41.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Kim S.K., Cho J.W., Kwak W.J., Kim G. and Kwon O.: Development of TWIP Steel for Automotive Application: Proceedings / 3rd International Steel Conference on New Developments in Metallurgical Process Technologies, Düsseldorf, 2007, pp. 690-697.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Salzgitter A.G.: Corus und Salzgitter kooperieren bei der Entwicklung eines neuen Stahls mit herausragenden Materialeigenschaften, Corus and Salzgitter cooperate on the development of a new steel with outstanding material characteristics, Press Release, 18.02.2009 (in German).Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Grässel O., Krüger L., Frommeyer G. and Meyer L.W.: High strength Fe-Mn-(Al, Si) TRIP/TWIP steels development — properties — application, International Journal of Plasticity, 2000, vol. 16, no. 10–11, pp. 1391–1409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    Scott C., Allain S., Faral M. and Guelton N.: The development of a new Fe-Mn-C austenitic steel for automotive applications, Revue de Métallurgie, 2006, no. 6, pp. 293–302.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Cooman B.C., Chen L., Kim H.S., Estrin Y., Kim S.K. and Voswinckel H.: State-of-the-science of high manganese TWIP steels for automotive applications, Haldar A., Suwas S., Bhattacharjee D. (Eds.): Microstructure and Texture in Steels, 2009, pp. 165-183.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Grässel O.: Entwicklung und Charakterisierung neuer TRIP-, TWIP-Leichtbaustähle auf der Basis Fe-Mn-Al-Si, Development and characterisation of new TRIP/TWIP lightweight steel based on Fe-Mn-Al-Si, Doctoral Thesis, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, 2000 (in German).Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Tamura I.: Deformation-induced martensitic transformation and transformation-induced plasticity in steels, Metal Science, 1982, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 245–253.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Frommeyer G.: Supra-ductile and high-strength man-ganese-TRIP/TWIP steels for high energy absorption purposes, Iron and Steel Institute of Japan (ISIJ International), 2003, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 438–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    Kuntz M., Lempenauer K., Staufner W. and Roos E.: Verformungsmechanismen hochmanganlegierter austen-itischer Twip-Stähle, Deformation mechanisms of high manganese austenitic TWIP steels, Stahl und Eisen, 2007, no. 12, pp. 83–89 (in German).Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Schumann H. and Oettel H.: Metallografie, Metallography, Weinheim, 2005, vol. 14 (in German).Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Gigacher G., Bernhard C. and Kriegner W.: Eigenschaften hochmanganhaltiger Stähle unter stranggießähnlichen Bedingungen, Properties of high manganese steels under continuous casting conditions, URL: (in German).
  13. [13]
    DIN EN ISO 5817:2003, Welding — Fusion-welded joints in steel, nickel, titanium and their alloys (beam welding excluded) — Quality levels for imperfections (ISO 5817:2003 + Cor. 1:2006).Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Keil D., Zinke M., Pries H.: Investigations on hot cracking of novel high manganese TWIP-Steels, Lippold J., Böllinghaus T., Cross C.E. (Eds.): Hot cracking phenomena in welds III, New York 2011, pp. 209-223.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    DIN EN 895: 1999–05, Destructive tests on welds in metallic materials — Transverse tensile test (DIN EN 895: 1999–05).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© International Institute of Welding 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel Keil
    • 1
  • Manuela Zinke
    • 1
  • Helge Pries
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Materials and Joining TechnologyOtto von Guericke UniversityMagdeburgGermany
  2. 2.Institute of Joining and WeldingBraunschweig University of TechnologyGermany

Personalised recommendations