Welding in the World

, Volume 56, Issue 11–12, pp 66–78 | Cite as

Modeling Of Hydrogen Distributionin A Duplex Stainless Steel

Peer-Reviewed Section


Quite a number of models for hydrogen distribution in steels and welds have been developed in the past 20 years. They reach from simple analytical models to more complex two and three dimensional finite element simulations. So far, these models have been used to simulate hydrogen distribution in homogeneous microstructure. This paper contributes to numerical simulation of hydrogen distribution in heterogeneous microstructure, e.g. in a duplex stainless steel microstructure consisting of two phase fractions. Under appropriate conditions, such as cathodic protection, it is possible that hydrogen is absorbed leading to material embrittlement and possibly initiating hydrogen assisted cracking. In order to avoid hydrogen assisted cracking in duplex stainless steels, it is of great interest to know more about the diffusion behavior of the ferrite and austenite phase. A numerical model has been developed that operates on the mesoscale and enables simulation of hydrogen transport in the various phases of a metallic material.

As a first application of this model, hydrogen distribution in a duplex stainless steel 1.4462, consisting of approximately equal portions of ferrite and austenite, was simulated using the finite element program package ANSYS. The results reflect the dependency of hydrogen distribution on the microstructural alignment of the ferrite and austenite phase fractions. Crack-critical areas can thus be identified, provided the critical strain-hydrogen combination is known for the respective microstructural phase.

IIW- Thesaurus keywords

Simulation Duplex stainless steel Hydrogen Diffusion Weld metal Microstructure 


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© International Institute of Welding 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and TestingGermany

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