Welding in the World

, Volume 56, Issue 5–6, pp 14–28 | Cite as

Experience In Welding Stainless Steels For Water Heater Applications

Peer-Reviewed Section


Duplex stainless steels are commonly used in domestic water heaters and boilers, where their high strength and corrosion resistance can be utilized for a lighter product with long lifetime at low cost. Welding of the duplex grades may be somewhat different compared to ferritic and particularly austenitic stainless steels. In this paper, general welding guidelines are given for the most frequently-used duplex grades and how these can be combined with other stainless steels. Corrosion test results for welded duplex grades are shown to illustrate the negative effect of weld oxides and compared to those for ferritic and austenitic stainless steels. The objective is to share some experience on suitable solutions and recommendations in order to avoid any failures. Generally, for all stainless steels, crevices should be avoided by redesign and residual weld oxide should be removed by pickling. Nitrogen additions to the shielding gas are beneficial when welding duplex grades autogenously. A nitrogen-based backing gas has a great effect on the austenite formation on the root side and the pitting resistance, also when welding with filler metal.

IIW-Thesaurus keywords

Austenite Austenitic stainless steels Corrosion tests Duplex stainless steels Ferritic stainless steels GTA welding Laser welding Mechanical properties N additions Weldability Weld metal Welding 


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Copyright information

© International Institute of Welding 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Böhler Schweißtechnik Austria GmbHKapfenbergAustria
  2. 2.Outokumpu StainlessThin Strip NybyTorshällaSweden

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