Welding in the World

, Volume 55, Issue 3–4, pp 2–11 | Cite as

Specific properties of ferritic/austenitic Dissimilar Metals Welded Joints

  • Danut Iordachescu
  • Elena Scutelnicu
  • Mihaela Iordachescu
  • Andrés Valiente
  • Jesús Ruiz-Hervias
  • José Luis Ocaña
Peer-Reviewed Section


This paper addresses several peculiar properties of ferritic/austenitic welded joints (Black and White Joints-BWJ) of thin sheets, which are emerging nowadays due to cost saving and satisfactory service performance. Starting from 3D thermal field modelling approached by considering Goldak’s double ellipsoidal heat source, together with a contribution of the authors, a 2D FEM-based model was used for arc welding of low carbon steel (CS) and stainless steel (SS) of thin sheets (3 mm). Conclusion helped to conduct experiments of BWJ arc welding (MMA and TIG), and laser-GMA hybrid welding, whilst infrared thermographic measurements were compared with the FEM results. Besides microstructural examination and mechanical characterization (hardness and tensile), fracture toughness and stress corrosion tests were performed on the BWJ laser hybrid welded. Whilst the model has offered important qualitative information about the asymmetric thermal field and the heat apportionment on the molten metal pool formation, the experiments have shown inadequate microstructures and constitutions of the welds for MMA and TIG welding, with respect to laser-GMAW hybrid joints. The description of the experimental program focused on B&W laser-GMA hybrid welding of thin plates aiming a characterization procedure using fracture mechanics methods is briefly presented.

IIW-Thesaurus keywords

Combined processes GMA welding GTA welding Hardness Laser welding Low carbon steels Mathematical models Microstructure MMA welding Stainless steels Stress corrosion 


a, b, cf, cr

the four axial dimensions of the ellipses [mm]

c, c1, c2

specific heat capacity [J/(kg/K)]

ff, fr

proportion coefficients for heat apportionment in the front and rear side of the welding pool


plate thickness [mm]


enthalpy of fusion (heat of fusion) [kJ/mol]

q1, q2

- volumetric heat input


energetic input rate [W]


initial temperature [°C]


current temperature [°C]


arc voltage [V]


welding current [A]


welding speed [m/s]


process energetic efficiency


process melting efficiency


effective thermal conductivity [W/(m·K)]


base material melting temperature [°C]


maximum temperature of the liquid metal [°C]


mass density [kg/m3]


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Copyright information

© International Institute of Welding 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Danut Iordachescu
    • 1
    • 3
  • Elena Scutelnicu
    • 2
    • 3
  • Mihaela Iordachescu
    • 3
  • Andrés Valiente
    • 3
  • Jesús Ruiz-Hervias
    • 3
  • José Luis Ocaña
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.UPM Laser CentreUniversidad Politécnica de MadridSpain
  2. 2.Robotics and Welding DepartmentDunarea de Jos University of GalatiRomania
  3. 3.Materials Science Department, ETSI Caminos, Canales y PuertosUniversidad Politécnica de MadridSpain

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