Welding in the World

, Volume 56, Issue 1–2, pp 2–8 | Cite as

Measurement and Simulation of Residual Strain in a Laser Welded Titanium Ring

  • Saurabh Kabra
  • Donald W. Brown
  • Ching-Fong Chen
  • John O. Milewski
  • Tim K. Wong
Peer-Reviewed Section


Elastic residual strains were measured in a laser welded commercially pure titanium ring using a non-destructive neutron diffraction technique in order to determine the resolution of this method for the characterization of small laser welds. In addition, these measurements were used to validate calculations made using residual strain data obtained from simulation of the residual stress near the weld. The measured strains were in good agreement with the simulated results.

IIW-Thesaurus keywords

Diffraction Laser welding Neutron radiation Simulating Strain Titanium 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    Bourke M., Dunand D.C. and Ustundag E.: SMARTS — A spectrometer for strain measurement in engineering materials, Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing, 2002, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. S1707–S1709.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Woo W., Feng Z., Wang X.L., Brown D.W., Clausen B., An K., Choo H., Hubbard C.R. and David S.A.: In situ neutron diffraction measurements of temperature and stresses during friction stir welding of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy, Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, 2009, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 298–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Edwards L., Bouchard P.J., Dutta M., Wang D.Q., Santisteban J.R., Hiller S. and Fitzpatrick M.E.: Direct measurement of the residual stresses near a ‘boat-shaped’ repair in a 20 mm thick stainless steel tube butt weld, International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, 2005, vol. 82, no. 4, pp. 288–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    Brown D.W., Varma R., Bourke M.A.M., Ely T., Holden T.M. and Spooner S.: A neutron diffraction study of residual stress and plastic strain in welded beryllium rings, Materials Science Forum, 2002, vol. 404–407, pp. 741–746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    Suzuki H., Holden T.M., Moriai A., Minakawa N. and Morii Y.: Residual stress evaluation of butt weld sample of high tensile strength steel using neutron diffraction, Journal of the Society of Materials Science, Japan, 2005, vol. 54, no. 7, pp. 685–691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Ferro P., Porzner H., Tizaiani A. and Bonollo F.: The influence of phase transformation on residual stresses induced by the welding process — 3D and 2D numerical models, Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, 2006, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 117–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    Stone H.J., Roberts S.M., Withers P.J., Reed R.C. and Holden T.M.: The development and validation of a model for electron beam welding of aero-engine components, in Proceedings of Trends in Welding Research, Pine Mountain Georgia, USA, June 1–5, 1998, pp. 955-960, ASM International.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Stone H.J., Roberts S.M. and Reed R.C.: Process model for the distortion induced by the electron-beam welding of a nickel-based superalloy, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science, 2000, vol. 31, no. 9, pp. 2261–2273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Lander G.H. and Price D.L.: Neutron scattering with spallation sources, Physics Today, 1985, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 38–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    Chen X.G.: Application of Al-B4C metal matrix composites in the nuclear industry for neutron absorber materials, (ed. N. Gupta, W.H. Hunt), in Rohatgi Honorary Symposium on Solidification Processing of Metal Matrix Composites, San Antonio, TX: Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, 2006, vol. 2006, pp. 343–350.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Larson A.C. and Von Dreele R.B.: General Structure Analysis System (GSAS), Los Alamos National Laboratory 1987, LA-CC-87-0025.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Wang D.-Q., Wang D.-L, Robertson J.L. and Hubbard C.R.: Modeling radial collimators for use in stress and texture measurements with neutron diffraction, Journal of Applied Crystallography, 2000, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 334–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    Von Dreele R.B., Jorgensen J.D. and Windsor CG.: Rietveld refinement with spallation neutron powder diffraction data, Journal of Applied Crystallography, 1982, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 581–589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    Daymond M.R., Bourke M.A.M. and Von Dreele R.B.: Use of Rietveld refinement to fit a hexagonal crystal structure in the presence of elastic and plastic anisotropy Journal of Applied Physics, 1999, vol. 85, no. 2, pp. 739–747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    Goldak J., Chakravarti A. and Bibby M.: A new finite element model for welding heat sources, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, June 1984, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 299–305.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    Elmer J.W, Wong J. and Ressler T.: In-situ spatially resolved X-ray diffraction mapping of the α→β→α transformation in commercially pure titanium arc welds, in Proceeding of Trends in Welding Research, Pine Mountain Georgia, USA, June 1–5, 1998, pp. 107-112, ASM International.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© International Institute of Welding 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Saurabh Kabra
    • 1
  • Donald W. Brown
    • 2
  • Ching-Fong Chen
    • 2
  • John O. Milewski
    • 2
  • Tim K. Wong
    • 3
  1. 1.ANSTOKirrawee DCAustralia
  2. 2.Los Alamos National LaboratoryLos AlamosUSA
  3. 3.Alfred UniversityAlfredUSA

Personalised recommendations