Advertisement

Biochemical Basis and Molecular Genetics of Processing and Nutritional Quality Traits of Wheat

  • Sewa Ram
  • B. Mishra
Review Article

Abstract

Wheat is unique in the sense that large numbers of end-use products such as chapati, bread, biscuits, noodles and pasta products are made from it. This is possible because of visco-elastic property imparted to the dough by its gluten proteins. Grain texture, gluten constituents and starch composition in the endosperm are major determinants of end-product quality. Each end-use product has its own specific requirements. Therefore, to expedite the breeding programme for the development of product-specific varieties, understanding the grain components at biochemical/molecular level and their relationship with quality, is needed. Impressive advances have been made in understanding the subunit composition of glutenins, gliadins and starch at biochemical and molecular levels. Molecular markers for these components have been identified, and are being used in breeding for the improvement of wheat quality. Wheat is also deficient of certain micronutrients such as Fe and Zn and lysine content. There is increasing concern globally for the improvement of the nutritional quality of wheat for micronutrient content, and protein and starch quality. Transgenic approach will be helpful in manipulating metabolic pathways for enhancing micronutrient bioavailability and increased lysine content. In this review, information on recent developments that have taken place in understanding the biochemical basis and molecular genetics of processing and nutritional quality of wheat grain and its future implications, has been provided.

Key words

wheat glutenins gliadins coeliac disease puroindolines starch lysine β-carotene genetic engineering 

Abbreviations

GPC

grain protein content

HMW-GS

high molecular weight glutenin subunit

LMW-GS

low molecular weight glutenin subunit

PCR

polymerase chain reaction

PPO

polyphenol oxidase

QTL

quantitative trait loci

RIL

recombinant inbred lines

RSLs

recombinant substitution lines

RS

resistant starch

SNP

single nucleotide polymorphism

SDS-PAGE

sodium dodecyl sulphate poly-acrylamide gel electrophoresis

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Ortiz-Monasterio JI, Palacios-Rojas N, Meng E, Pixley K, Trethowan R & Pena, RJ, J Cereal Sci, 46 (2007) 293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    MacRitchie F, In Advances in cereal science and technology Vol III (Y Pomeranz, Editor), American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. Paul, MN, (1980) p 271.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gains CS, Cereal Chem, 62 (1985) 290.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tipples KH, Kilborn RH & Preston KR, In Wheat production properties and quality (W Bushuk, VF Rasper, Editors), Blackie Academic & Professional, Glasgow G64 2NZ, UK (1994) p 25.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Morris CF, Plant Mol Biol, 48 (1998) 633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Greenwell P & Schofield JD, Cereal Chem, 63 (1996) 379.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Greenblatt GA, Bettge AD & Morris CF, Cereal Chem, 72 (1995) 172.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jolly CJ, Rahman S, Kortt AA & Higgins TJV, Theor Appl Genet, 86 (1993) 589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jolly CJ, Glenn GM & Rahman S, Proc Natl Acad Sci, USA, 93 (1996) 2408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Giroux MJ & Morris CF, Theor Appl Genet, 95 (1997) 857.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Blochet JE, Chevalier C, Forest E, Pebay-peysoula E, Gautier MF, Joudrier P, Pizolet M & Marion D, FEBS Lett, 329 (1993) 336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gautier MF, Aleman ME, Guirao A, Marion D & Joudier P, Plant Mol Biol, 25 (1994) 43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Morris CF, Greenblatt GA, Bettge AD & Malkawi HI, J Cereal Sci, 21 (1994) 167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Syme KJ, Aust J Agric Res, 16 (1965) 113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mattern PJ, Morris R, Schmidt JW & Johnson VA, In Proc 4 th Intn Wheat Genetics Symp, University of Missouri, Columbia (1973) p 703.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Law CN, Young CF, Brown JWS, Snape JW & Worland AJ, In Seed protein improvement by nuclear techniques, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (1978) p 483.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gazza L, Conti S, Taddei F & Pogna NE, Mol Breed, 17 (2006) 191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Giroux MJ & Morris CF, Proc Natl Acad Sci, USA, 95 (1998) 6262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ram S, Jain N, Shoran J & Singh R, J Plant Biochem Biotech, 14 (2005) 45.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Turnbull KM, Gaborit T, Marion D & Rahman S, Aust J Plant Physiol, 27 (2000) 153.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chen F, He ZH, Xia XC, Xia LQ, Zhang XY, Lillemo M & Morris CF, Theor Appl Genet, 112 (2006) 400.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cane K, Spackman M & Eagles HA, Aust J Agric Res, 55 (2004) 89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lillemo M & Morris CF, Theor Appl Genet, 100 (2000) 1100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Morris CF, Lillemo M, Simeone MC, Giroux MJ, Babb SL & Kidwell KK, Crop Sci, 41 (2001) 218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Xia LQ, Chen F, He ZH, Chen XM & Morris CF, Cereal Chem, 82 (2005) 38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ikeda TM, Ohnishi N, Nagamine T, Oda S, Hisatomi T & Yano H, J Cereal Sci, 41 (2005) 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ram S, Boyko E, Giroux MJ & Gill BS, J Plant Biochem Biotech, 11 (2002) 79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lillemo M, Chen F, Xia X, William M, Pena JR, Trethowan R & He Z, J Cereal Sci, 44(1) (2006) 86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Massa AN, Morris CF & Gill BS, Crop Sci, 44 (2004) 1808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gedye KR, Morris CF & Bettge AD, Theor Appl Genet, 109 (2004) 1597.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bushuk W, Euphytica, 100 (1998) 137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Blanco A, Giovanni CDE, Laddomada, B, Sciancalepore A, Simeone R, Devos KM & Gale MD, Plant Breed, 115 (1996) 310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mesfin A, Frohberg RC & Anderson JA, Crop Sci, 39 (1999) 508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Khan IA, Procunier JD, Humphreys DG, Tranquilli G, Schlatter AR, Marcicci-Poltri S, Frohberg R & Dubcovsky J, Crop Sci, 40 (2000) 518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Singh H, Prasad M, Varshney RK, Roy JK, Balyan HS, Dhaliwal HS & Gupta PK, Plant Breed, 120 (2002) 273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Prasad M, Kumar N, Kulwal PL, Roder MS, Balyan HS. Dhaliwal HS & Gupta PK, Theor Appl Genet, 106 (2003) 659.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Uauy C, Distelfeld A, Fahima T, Blechl A & Dubcovsky J, Science, 314 (2006) 1298.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Joppa LR, Hart GE & Hareland GA, Crop Sci, 37 (1997) 1586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Distelfeld A, Cakmak I, Peleg Z, Ozturk L, Yazici AM, Budak H, Saranga Y & Fahima T, Physiol Plant, 129 (2007) 635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Payne PI & Lawrence GJ, Cereal Res Commun, 11 (1983) 29.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Gianibelli MC, Larroque OR, MacRitchie F & Wrigley CW, Cereal Chem, 78 (2001) 635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Payne PI, Nightingale MA, Krattiger AF & Holt LM, J Sci Food Agric, 40 (1987) 51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ford J, Malpica M, Harford NG, Shewry PR, Anderson OD, Greene FC & Miflin BJ, Nucleic Acids Res, 13 (1985) 6817.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Harberd NP, Flavell RB & Thompson RD, Mol Gen Genet, 209 (1987) 326.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Bustos AD, Rubio P & Jouve N, Theor Appl Genet, 100 (2000) 1085.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Sud S, Mahal GS & Singh H, Indian J Genet Plant Breed, 64 (2004) 28.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Halford NG, Forde J, Anderson OD, Green FC & Shewry PR, Theor Appl Genet, 75 (1987) 117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Anderson OD, Green FC, Yip RE, Halford NG & Shewry PR, Nucleic Acids Res, 17 (1989) 461.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Thompson RD, Bartels D & Harberd NP, Nucleic Acids Res, 13 (1985) 6833.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Reddy P & Appels R, Theor Appl Genet, 85 (1993) 616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    D’Ovidio R, Porceddu E & Lafiandra D, Theor Appl Genet, 88 (1994) 175.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kasarda DD, In Wheat is unique (Y Pomeranz, Editor) American Association of Cereal Chemist, St. Paul, MN, USA (1989) p 277.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Shewry PR, Halford NG & Tatham AS, J Cereal Sci, 15 (1992) 105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Souza E, Kruk M & Sundrman DW, Cereal Chem, 71 (1994) 601.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hou G, Yamamoto H & NG PKW, Cereal Chem, 73 (1996) 358.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Czuchajowska Z, Lin PY & Smolinski S, Cereal Chem, 73(3) (1996) 338.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Srivastava AK, Meyer D, Haridas Rao P & Seibel W, J Cereal Sci, 35 (2002) 119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Srivastava AK, Prasad Rao UJS & Haridas Rao P, J Sci Food Agric, 83 (2003) 225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Ram S, J Plant Biochem Biotech, 12 (2003) 151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    D’Ovidio R & Anderson OD, Theor Appl Genet, 88 (1994) 759.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Varghese JP, Struss D & Kazman ME, Plant Breed, 115 (1996) 451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Ahmad M, Theor Appl Genet, 101 (2000) 892.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Lei ZS, Gale KR, He ZH, Gianibelli C, Larroque O, Xia XC, Busow BJ & Ma W, J Cereal Sci, 43 (2006) 94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Gale KR, J Cereal Sci, 41 (2005) 181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Gupta RB & MacRitchie F, J Cereal Sci, 19 (1994) 19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Vasil IK & Anderson OD, Trends in Plant Sci, 2 (1997) 292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Belton PS, J Cereal Sci, 29 (1999) 103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Weeks JT, Anderson OD & Blechl AE, Plant Physiol, 102 (1993) 1077.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Altpeter F, Vasil V, Srivastava V & Vasil IL, Nature Biotech, 14 (1996) 1155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Blechl AE & Anderson OD, Nature Biotech, 14 (1996) 875.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Barrow F, Rooke I, Bekes F, Gras P, Tatham AS, Fido R, Lazzeri PA, Shewry PR & Barcelo P, Nature Biotech, 15 (1997) 1295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Rooke L, Bekes F, Fido R, Barro F, Gras P, Tatham AS, Parcelo P, Lazzeri P & Shewry PR, J Cereal Sci, 30 (1999) 115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Alvarez ML, Guelman S, Halford MG, Lustig S, Reggiardo MI, Ryabushkina N, Shewry PR, Stein J & Vallejos RH, Theor Appl Genet, 100 (2000) 319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    He GY, Jones HD, D’Ovidio R, Masci S, Chen M, West J, Busow B, Anderson OD, Lazzeri P, Fido R & Shewry PR, J Cereal Sci, 42 (2005) 225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Shewry PR & Jones HD, Ann Appl Biol, 147 (2005) 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Jackson EA, Holt LM & Payne PI, Theor Appl Genet, 66 (1983) 29.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Okita TW, Cheesbrough V & Reeves CD, J Biol Chem, 13, (1985) 8203.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Masci S, Porceddu E, Colaprico G & Lafiandra D, J Cereal Sci, 14 (1991) 35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Lagudah ES, Appels R, Brown AHD & McNeil D, Genome, 34 (1991) 375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Gupta RB & Shepherd KW, Theor Appl Genet, 80 (1990) 65.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Singh NK & Shepherd KW, Theor Appl Genet, 75 (1988) 628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Zhang W, Gianibelli MC, Rampling L & Gale KR, Theor Appl Genet, 108 (2004) 1409.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Long H, Wei YM, Yan ZH, Baum B, Nevo E & Zheng YL, Theor Appl Genet, 111 (2005) 1251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Masci S, Lew EJL, Lafiandra D, Porceddu E & Kasarda DD, Cereal Chem, 72 (1995) 100.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    D’Ovidio R, Marchielli C, Ercoli-Cardelli L & Porceddu E, Theor Appl Genet, 98 (1999) 455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Cloutier S, Rampitsch C, Penner GA & Lukow OM, J Cereal Sci, 33 (2001) 143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Pitts EG, Rafalski JA & Hedgcoth C, Nucleic Acids Res, 16 (1988) 11376.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Van Campenhout S, Stappen JV, Sagi L & Volckaert G, Theor Appl Genet, 91 (1995) 313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Benmoussa M, Vezina LP, Page M, Yelle S & Laberge S, Theor Appl Genet, 100 (2000) 789.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Ram S, Bhatia V, Jain V & Mishra B, J Plant Biochem Biotech, 15 (2006) 79.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Kreiss M, Shewry PR, Forde BG, Forde J & Miflin BJ, In Oxford surveys of plant and molecular cell biology (B J Miflin, Editor) Oxford University Press, London, (1985) p 253.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Ciaffi M, Lee YK, Tamas L, Gupta R, Skerritt J, & Appels R, Theor Appl Genet, 98 (1999) 135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Lee YK, Ciaffi M, Morell MK & Appels R, Theor Appl Genet, 98 (1999) 126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    D’Ovidio R, Simeone M, Masci S & Porceddu E, Theor Appl Genet, 95 (1997) 1119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Masci S, D’Ovidio R, Lafiandra D & Kasarda DD, Plant Physiol, 118 (1998) 1147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Greenfield JJA, Ross-Murphy SB, Tamas L, Bekes F, Halford NG, Tatham AS & Shewry PR, J Cereal Sci, 27 (1998) 233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    D’Ovidio R & Masci S, J Cereal Sci, 39 (2004) 321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Gupta RB, Paul JG, Cornish GB, Palmer GA, Bekes F & Rathjen AJ, J Cereal Sci, 19 (1994) 9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Gupta RB, Singh NK & Shepherd KW, Theor Appl Genet, 77 (1989) 57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Vaccino P, Redaelli R, Metakovsky EV, Borghi B, Corbellini M & Pogna, NE, Theor Appl Genet, 105 (2002) 43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Cornish GB, Burridge PM, Palmer GA & Wrigley CW, In Proc 42 nd Aust Cereal Chem Conf Sydney, (1993) p 255.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Brett GM, Mills ENC, Tatham AS, Fido RJ, Shewry PR & Morgan MRA, Theor Appl Genet, 86 (1993) 442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Andrews JL & Skerritt JH, Cereal Chem, 73(5) (1996) 650.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Patacchini C, Masci S, D’Ovidio R & Lafiandra F, J Chromatography, B 786 (2003) 215.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Vazquez JF, Ruiz M, Nieto-Talatriz MT & Albuquerque MM, J Cereal Sci, 24 (1996) 125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Luo C, Griffin WB, Branlard G & McNeil DL, Theor Appl Genet, 102 (2001) 1088.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Payne PI, Roberts MS & Holt LM, Genet Res, 47 (1986) 175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Metakovsky EV & Novoselskaya AY, J Genet Breed, 45 (1991) 317.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Metakovsky EV, Felix I & Branlard G, J Cereal Sci, 26 (1997) 371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Rodriguez-Quijano M & Carillo JM, Plant Breed, 115 (1996) 189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Ram, S, Jain N, Dawar, V, Singh RP & Shoran J, Crop Sci, 45 (2005) 1256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Branlard G, Dardevet M, Saccomano R, Lagoutte F & Gourdon J, Euphytica, 119 (2001) 59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Tatham AS, Adv Cereal Sci Tech, 10 (1990) 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Muller S & Weiser HJ, J Cereal Sci, 26 (1997) 169.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Muller S, Vensel WH, Kasarda DD, Kohler P & Weiser H, J Cereal Sci, 27 (1998) 109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Anderson OD, Litts JC & Greene FC, Theor Appl Genet, 95 (1997) 50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Buren MV, Luthy J & Hubner P, Theor Appl Genet, 100 (2000) 271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Zhang W, Gianibelli MC, Ma W, Rampling L & Gale KR, Theor Appl Genet, 107 (2003) 130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Pistoń F, Dorado G, Martýń A & Barro F, J Cereal Sci, 43 (2006) 120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Sozinov AA & Poperelya FA, Ann Technol Agric, 29 (1980) 229.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Wrigley CW, Robinson PJ & Wiliams WT, Aust J Agric Res, 33 (1982) 409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Ciaffi M, Tozzi L & Lafiandra D, Cereal Chem, 73 (1996) 346.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Fido RJ, Bekes F, Gras PW & Tatham AS, J Cereal Sci, 26 (1997) 271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    MacRitchie F, J Cereal Sci, 6 (1987) 259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Pogna NE, Autran, JC, Mellini F, Lafiandra D, Feillet P, J Cereal Sci, 11 (1990) 15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Anderson OD, Hsia CC & Torres V, Theor Appl Genet, 103 (2001) 323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Rahman S, Li Z, Batey I, Cochrane M, Appels R & Morell M, J Cereal Sci, 31 (2000) 91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Denyer K, Hylton CM, Jenner CF & Smith AM, Planta, 196 (1995) 256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Morrison WR & Gadan H, J Cereal Sci, 5 (1987) 263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Preiss J, Oxford Surveys Plant Mol and Cell Bio, 7 (1992) 69.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Anderson JM, Larson R, Laudencia D, Kim WT, Morrow D, Okita TW & Preiss J, Gene, 97 (1991) 199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Ainsworth C, Tarvis M & Clark J, Plant Mol Biol, 23 (1993) 23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Fisher DK, Boyer CD & Hannah LC, Plant Physiol, 102 (1993) 1045.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Rahman S, Li Z, Abrahams S, Abbott D, Appels R & Morell M, Theor Appl Genet, 98 (1999) 146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Shimada H, Tada Y, Kawakasi T & Fujimura T, Theor Appl Genet, 86 (1993) 665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Visser RGF & Jacobsen E, Trends in Biotech, 11 (1993) 63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Regina A, Bird A, Topping D, Bowden S, Freeman J, Barsby T, Kosar-Hashemi B, Li Z, Rahman S & Morell M, Proc Natl Acad Sci, USA, 103 (2006) 3546.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Larson H & Eliasson AC, J Texture Studies, 28 (1997) 487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Yamamori M, Nakamura T, Endo R & Nagamine T, Theor Appl Genet, 89 (1994) 178.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Zeng M, Morris CF, Batey IL & Wrigley CW, Cereal Chem, 74 (1997) 63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Zhao HC, Batey IL, Sharp PJ, Crosbie G, Barclay I, Wilson R, Morell MK & Appels R, J Cereal Sci, 27 (1998) 7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Yamamori M & Quynh NT, Theor Appl Genet, 100 (2000) 32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Vrinten P, Nakamura T & Yamamori M, Mol Gen Genet, 261 (1999) 463.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Nakamura T, Vrinten P, Salto M, & Konda M, Genome, 45 (2002) 1150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Salto M, Konda M, Vrinten P, Nakamura K & Nakamura T, Theor Appl Genet, 108 (2004) 1205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Monari AM, Simeone MC, Urbano M, Margiotta B & Lafiandra D, Theor Appl Genet, 110 (2005) 1481.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Miura H, Wickramasinghe MHA, Subasinghe RM, Araki E & Komae K, Euphytica, 123 (2002) 353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Slade AJ, Fuerstenberg AI, Loeffler D, Steine MN & Facciotti D, Nature Biotech, 23 (2005) 75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Morris CF, Jeffers HC & Engle DE, Cereal Chem, 77 (2000) 77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Anderson JV, Fuerst EP, Hurkman WJ, Vensel WH & Morris CF, J Cereal Sci, 44 (2006) 353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Jukanti AK, Bruckner PL & Fisher AM, Cereal Chem, 81 (2004) 481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Jukanti AK, Bruckner PL & Fisher AM, Funct Plant Biol, 33 (2006) 685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Massa AN, Beecher B & Morris CF, Theor Appl Genet, 114 (2007) 1239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    He XY, He ZH, Zhang LP, Sun DJ, Morris CF, Fuerst EP & Xia XC, Theor Appl Genet, 115 (2007) 47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Chhuneja P, Dhaliwal HS, Bains NS & Singh K, Plant Breed, 125 (2006) 529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Lucca P, Hurrell P & Potrykus I, Theor Appl Genet, 102 (2001) 392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Raboy V, Trends in Plant Sci, 6 (2001) 458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Raboy V, J Nutr, 132 (2002) 503S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Raboy V & Gerbasi P, In Myoinositol phosphates, phosphoinositides and signal transduction (B Biswas, S Biswas, Editors), Plenum, New York, (1996) p 257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Raboy V, Gerbasi P, Young K, Stoneberg S, Pickett G, Bauman A, Murthy P, Sheridan W & Ertl D, Plant Physiol, 124 (2000) 355.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Larson SR, Rutger JN, Young KA & Raboy V, Crop Sci, 40 (2000) 1397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Rasmussen SK, & Hatzack F, Hereditas, 129 (1998) 107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Larson SR, Young KA, Cook A, Blake TK & Raboy V, Theor Appl Genet, 97 (1998) 141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Hitz WD, Carlson TJ, Kerr PS, & Sebastian SA, Plant Physiol, 128 (2002) 650.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Wilcox JR, Premachandra GS, Young, KA & Raboy V, Crop Sci, 40 (2000) 1601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Guttieri M., Bowen D, Dorsch JA, Raboy V & Souza E, Crop Sci, 44 (2004) 418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Guttieri MJ, Peterson KM & Souza EJ, Crop Sci, 46 (2006) 2692.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Greiner R & Konietzny U, Food Technol Biotech, 44 (2006) 125.Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Liu ZH, Wang HY, Wang XE, Zhang GP, Chen, PD & Liu DJ, J Cereal Sci, 45 (2007) 319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Gregersen PL, Brinch-Pedersen H, & Holm PB, Transgenic Res, 14(6) (2005) 887.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Forsyth JL, Beaudoin F, Halford NG, Sessions RB, Clarke AR & Shewry PR, Biochim Biophys Acta, 1747, (2005) 221.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Azevedo RA, Arruda P, Turner WL & Lea PJ, Phytochem, 46 (1997) 395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Galili G, Tang G, Zhu X & Gakiere B, Curr Opin in Biotech, 4 (2001) 261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Zhu X & Galili G, Plant Physiol, 135 (2004) 129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Mazur B, Krebbers E & Tingey S, Science, 285 (1999) 372.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Galili G, Amir R, Hoefgen R & Hesse H, Biol Chem, 386 (2005) 817.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Arruda P, Kemper EL, Papes F & Leite A, Trends in Plant Sci, 5 (2000) 324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Zhu X, Tang G, Granier F, Bouchez D & Galili G, Plant Physiol, 126 (2001) 1539.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Azevedo RA, Damerval C, Landry J, Lea PJ, Bellato CM, Meinhardt LW, Guilloux ML, Delhaye S, Toro AJ, Gaziolal SA & Berdejo BDA, Eur J Biochem, 270 (2003) 4898.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Singh NK, Donovan GR, Carpenter HC, Skerritt JH & Langridge P, Plant Mol Bio, 22 (1993) 227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Shailaja K, Rathore M, Purl N, Yadav D, & Singh NK, J Cereal Sci, 35(2) (2002) 129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Singh NK, Sailesh G, Kumar A, Sarita A, Purl N, Singh DT, Garg GK, Nayal S, Gaur AK & Srinivas B, In Genetics and biotechnology in crop improvement (PK Gupta, Editor) Rastogi Publication, Meerut (1998) p 158.Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Roesler KR & Rao AG, Protein Eng, 12 (1999) 967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Jung R & Falco SC, In Eigth intn Symp on Plant Seeds, Gatersleben, Germany (2000).Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Bruzzone CM & Asp EH, Cereal Foods World, 44 (1999) 109.Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    McGough N & Cummings JH, Proc Nutr Soc, 64 (2005) 434.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Shan L, Molberg O, Parrot I, Hausch F, Filiz F, Gray GM, Sollid LM & Khosla C, Science, 297 (2002) 2275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Molberg O, Uhlen AK, Jensen T, Flaete NS, Fleckenstein B, Arentz-Hansen H, Raki M, Lundin KEA & Sollid LM, Gastroenterology, 128 (2005) 393.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Itoh K, Ozaki H, Okada K, Hori H, Takeda Y & Mitsui T, Plant Cell Physiol, 44 (2003) 473.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Gao, M, Wanat, J, Stinard, PS, James, MG & Myers AM, Plant Cell, 10 (1998) 399.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Yamamori M, Fujita S, Hayakawa K & Matsuki J, Theor Appl Genet, 101 (2000) 21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Morell MK, Kosar-Hashemi B, Cmiel M, Samuel MS, Chandler P, Rahman S, Buleón A, Batey IL & Li Z, Plant J, 34 (2003) 173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Bird AR, Jackson M, Davis DA, Usher S & Topping DL, Br J Nutr, 92 (2004) 607.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Topping DL, Morell MK, King RA, Li Z, Bird AR & Noakes M, Starch/Starke, 53 (2003) 539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Olson JA & Kobayashi S, Proc Soc Expt Bio Med, 200 (1992) 245.Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    Van Poppel G, Spanhaak S & Ockhuizen T, Am J Clin Nutr, 57 (1993) 402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Krinski NI, Free Radical Bio Med, 7 (1989) 616.Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    WHO, In The World Health Report 2002. New York, World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/whr/2002/chapter4.Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    Paine JA, Shipton CA, Chaggar S, Howells RM, Kennedy MJ, Vernon G, Wright SY, Hinchliffe E, Adams JL, Silverstone AL & Drake R, Nature Biotech, 23 (2005) 482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    He XY, Zhang YL, He ZH, Wu YP, Xiao YG, Ma CX, & Xia XC, Theor Appl Genet, 116 (2008) 213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Borrelli GM, Troccoli A, Di Fonzo N & Fares C, Cereal Chem, 76 (1999) 335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Siedow JN, Annu Rev Plant Physiol and Plant Mol Biol, 42 (1991) 145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Prigge ST, Boyington B, Gaffney B, & Amzel M, In Lipoxigenase and lipoxigenase pathway enzymes (G Pizza, Editor), AOCS Press, Champaign, IL (1996).Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    Hildebrand DF, Physiol Plant, 76 (1989) 249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Doderer A, Kokkelink I, van der Veen S, Valk BE, Schram AW & Douma AC, Biochim Biophys Acta, 1120 (1992) 97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Van Mechelen JR, Schuurink RC, Smits M, Graner A, Douma AC, Sedee NJA, Schmitt NF & Valk BE, Plant Mol Bio, 39 (1999) 1283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Hart GE & Langston PJ, Heredity, 39 (1977) 263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Nachit MM, Elouafi I, Pagnotta MA, El Saleh A, Iacono E, Labhilili M, Asbati A, Azrak M, Hazzam H, Benscher D, Khairallah M, Ribaut JM, Tanzarella OA, Porceddu E & Sorrells ME, Theor Appl Genet, 102 (2001) 177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Li WL, Faris JD, Chittoor JM, Leach JE, Hulbert SH, Liu DJ, Chen PD & Gill BS, Theor Appl Genet, 98 (1999) 226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Hessler TG, Thomson MJ, Benscher D, Nachit MM & Sorrells ME, Crop Sci, 42 (2002) 1695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Carrera A, Echenique V, Zhang W, Helguera M, Manthey F, Schrager A, Picca A, Cervigni G & Dubcovsky J, J Cereal Sci, 45 (2007) 67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Directorate of Wheat ResearchKarnalIndia

Personalised recommendations