Callus Cultures from Zygotic Embryos of Costus speciosus and Their Morphogenetic Responses
Soft, nodular and hard types of calli were initiated on mature zygotic embryo explants of two tetraploid clones of Costus speciosus, of which, only the hard calli were amenable to morphogenetic responses. The two clones differed in their growth regulator requirements both for the initiation of calli and for shoot regeneration. De novo formation of both shoot bud meristems and somatic embryoids were observed. Latter were encased partially or fUlly by coleoptilar sheath. Embryoids could be isolated as discrete units. On maturity, a stock like appendage developed from the base and finally embryoids got detached from the subtending tissue. Both shoot-bud meristems and somatic embryoids developed into complete plantlets, the former upon sequential transfer of calli on Schenk and Hildebrandt’s (SH) basal medium containing lower levels of growth hormones, while the latter only on basal medium. These culture regenerants were subsequently transferred to the field. The morphogenetic behaviour of these two tetraploid clones reflects their marked genotypic difference inspite of their same ploidy status.
Key wordsembryogenesis organogenesis shoot-bud somatic embryoid zygotic embryo
callus induction medium
Schenk and Hildebrandt
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