The clinical consequences of mucosal injury and protection of the stomach have been extensively explored. However, similar studies in the small intestine are only just beginning. It appears that drug-induced injury to the small intestinal mucosa is much more common than originally thought. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), alcohol and bile acids all cause intestinal injury, ranging from hyperpermeability to intestinal perforation. Whether such injury leads to intestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease or sprue has yet to be resolved. Investigations in animals and humans suggest that, as with the stomach, prostaglandins may be major mediators in protection of the intestinal mucosa from injury. However, the mechanisms and clinical application of protection have yet to be fully explored.
Bile Acid Mucosal Injury Chenodeoxycholic Acid Intestinal Injury Small Intestinal Mucosa
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