, Volume 39, Issue 3, pp 19–26 | Cite as

Stress Effects on Nitinol Phase Transformations

  • D. Goldstein
  • L. Kabacoff
  • J. Tydings
Material Research Summary


Nitinol alloys are based on the intermetallic compound TiNi.1 They are noted for their shape memory capability, resulting from a martensite to austenite transformation. Residual stresses from prior cold work can have a major effect on the transformation as shown by measurements of linear contraction, electrical resistance, and calorimetry response following incremental annealing treatments of a cold wrought rod. It is postulated that the retention of an intermediate rhombohedral structure during the transition to martensite is a function of stresses. Precipitation ofthe excess nickel in solution can also generate stresses. Stress reliefofa severely cold wrought rod by annealing at temperatures of 300 to 400°C enables strain recoveries of more than 2.5%. The purpose this investigation was to: verify and explain the large irreversible “stage 1” contraction reported by Buehler et al.,2 explain the directional dependence of the reversible “stage 2” dimensional changes; explore how a cold drawn alloy recovers the ability to undergo the phase transformation as a function of its annealing; delineate the effect of stresses on the transition; and provide understanding and guidance on techniques for the thermal processing of nickel-rich Nitinol alloys for use in heat-actuated devices.


Martensite Residual Stress Shape Memory TiNi Annealing Treatment 
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© TMS 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Goldstein
  • L. Kabacoff
  • J. Tydings

There are no affiliations available

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