Advertisement

JOM

, Volume 37, Issue 9, pp 22–28 | Cite as

Reducing Temper Embrittlement by Lanthanide Additions

  • C. I. Garcia
  • G. A. Ratz
  • M. G. Burke
  • A. J. DeArdo
Physical Metallurgy and Material Research Summary

Abstract

This paper examines the temper embrittlement behavior of a series of 21/4%Cr-l%Mo steels with and without lanthanide metal (LnM) additions. The influence of LnM additions asmischmetal or as individual elements is assessed with respect to embrittlement behavior. Results show that LnM form harmless compounds in the matrix with impurities such as P, As, Sn and Sb, thus minimizing segregation-induced embrittlement. Optimum LnM levels well below those dictated from theoretical calculations are sufficient to trap the impurities for a given set of conditions.

Keywords

Intergranular Fracture Oxysulfide Temper Embrittlement Mischmetal Tramp Element 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    B.C. Woodfine, “Temper-Brittleness: A Critical Review of the Literature,” Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute,Vol. 173, 1953,pp. 229–240.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    E.T. Stephenson, “Effect of Recycling on Residuals Processing, and Properties of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels,” Metallurgical Transactions,Vol. 14A, 1983,pp. 343–353.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    M.P. Seah, P.J. Spencer, and E.D. Hondros, “Additive Remedy for Temper Brittleness,” Metal Science, May 1979,pp. 307–314.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    W.B. Morrison, BSC private communication, 1982.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    F. Songjun, L. Jinhui, and W. Chenjian, “The Influence of Phosphorus and Cerium on Temper Embrittlement of Martensite in Manganese Steel,” The Production and Applications of Less Common Metals Vol. I, Proceedings of the Metals Society and the Chinese Society of Metals, November 1982, Hangzou, Peoples Republic of China.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    R.J. Kar and J.A. Todd, “Alloy Modification of Thick Section 2 l/4Cr-lMo Steel,” Application of 2 1/4Cr-1Mo Steel for Thick Wall Pressure Vessels, Editors G.S. Sangdahl and M. Semchyshen, ASTM STP 755, pp. 228–252.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    R.F. Knight, W.R. Tyson, and G.I. Sproule, “Reduction of Temper Embrittlement of 2 1/4Cr-1 Mo Steels by Rare Earth Additions,” Metals Technology, Vol. 11, 1984, pp. 273–279.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Y. Nuri, T. Ohashi, T. Hiromoto, and O. Kitamura, “Solidification Macrostructure of Ingots and Continuously Cast Slabs Treated with Rare Earth Metal,” Transactions of the Iron and Steel Institute of Japan, Vol. 22, 1982, pp. 408–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Y. Nuri, T. Ohashi, T. Hiromoto, and O. Kitamura, “Solidification Microstructure of Ingots and Continuously Cast Slabs Treated with Rare Earth Metal,” Transactions of the Iron and Steel Institute of Japan, Vol. 22, 1981, pp. 399–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J.J. Moore, “Modification of the Cast Structure Using Rare Earth Additions,” Proceedings of Steel Making Conference, Vol. 57, 1984, pp. 239–254.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    C.S. Kortovich, “Inhibition of Hydrogen Embrittlement in High Strength Steel,” Technical Report #ER-7814-2, prepared by TRW, Equipment Materials Technology for the Office of Naval Research, Contract #N00014-74-0365, February 1977.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    J.C. Murza, and C.I. McMahon, Jr., “The Effects of Composition and Microstructure on Temper Embrittlement in 2 1/4Cr-1Mo Steel,” Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology, Vol. 102, 1980, pp. 369–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    B.L. Eyre, B.C. Edwards, and J.M. Titchmarsh, “Physical Metallurgy of Reversible Temper Embrittlement,” Advances in the Physical Metallurgy and Applications of Steels, Metals Society, University of Liverpool, London, September 1981, pp. 246–257.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    J. Yu, and C.J. McMahon, Jr., “The Effects of Composition and Carbide Precipitation on Temper Embrittlement of 2 1/4Cr-1Mo Steel: Part I. Effects of P and Sn,” Metallurgical Transactions A, Vol. 11, 1980, pp. 277–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    A.B. Muhammad, Z.C. Szkopiak, and M.B. Waldron, “Effects of Types of Carbides on Temper Embrittlement in Commercial 2 1/4Co-1Mo Steel,” in reference 13, pp. 340–348.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    M. Guttmann, “The Link Between Equilibrium Segregation and Precipitation in Ternary Solutions Exhibiting Temper Embrittlement,” Metals Science, 10, 1976, pp. 337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    M. Guttmann, “Grain Boundary Segregation, Two Dimensional Compound Formation, and Precipitation,” Metallurgical Transactions, Vol. 8A, 1977, pp. 1383–1385.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    D. McLean et al., “Micro-examination and Electrode-potential Measurements of Temper-Brittle Steels,” Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute, 158, 1948, pp. 169–172.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. Guttmann, “The Role of Residuals and Alloying Elements in Temper Embrittlement,” Philosophical Transactions Royal Society, A295, 1980, pp. 169–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    H. Ohtani, H.C. Feng, and C.J. McMahon, Jr., “Temper Embrittlement of Ni-Cr Steel by Antimony: Part II, Effect of Addition of Titanium”, Metallurgical Transactions, Vol. 7A, 1976, pp. 1126–1130.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    F.B. Pickering, “Ferrous Physical Metallurgy, Some Achievements and Applications,” in reference 13, pp. 52-1.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© TMS 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. I. Garcia
  • G. A. Ratz
  • M. G. Burke
  • A. J. DeArdo

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations