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JOM

, Volume 38, Issue 1, pp 46–50 | Cite as

Macrosegregation in ESR and VAR Processes

  • K. O. Yu
  • J. A. Domingue
  • G. E. Maurer
  • H. D. Flanders
Process Applied Technology

Abstract

The method of heat generation, heat transfer characteristics, and ingot structure are very different in the VAR and ESR processes, which result in different tendencies and mechanisms for macrosegregation formation in forged IN-718. Freckles are niobium rich and can be generated in both ESR and VAR, with higher incidence in ESR than VAR. White spots are niobium lean and can only be found in VAR-processed materials. Freckles are indige-nous in nature, and result from the flow of solute-rich interdendritic liquid in the mushy zone during solidification. The most plausible cause for white spots is exogenous material, which remains unmelted, falling into the molten pool. The best way to minimize the formation of freckles is to improve the ingot heat transfer rate, a more difficult task in ESR than in VAR.

Keywords

Mushy Zone White Spot Molten Pool Melting Rate Local Solidification Time 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© TMS 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. O. Yu
  • J. A. Domingue
  • G. E. Maurer
  • H. D. Flanders

There are no affiliations available

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