, Volume 48, Issue 7, pp 26–30 | Cite as

Cold-rolled, high-strength sheet steels for auto applications

  • Wolfgang Bleck
Automotive Steel Overview


Several groups of cold-rolled, high-strength sheet steels have been developed to optimize the required strength and formability levels for automotive applications. Multiphase steels offer new opportunities where high-strength levels are demanded. The future in steel development will be determined by the physical modeling of properties and by adapting new process routes such as thin slab casting and in-line rolling. In this article, developments in traditional strengthening concepts (e.g., microalloying and substitutional hardening with phosphorus) and more recently developed concepts (e.g., bake hardening and strengthening of interstitial-free steels) are reviewed.


Austenite Martensite Sheet Steel Trip Steel Yield Strength Increase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    L. Hamm, “Stahl-ein zukunftst rächtiger Werkstoff im Karosseriebau?” (Paper presented at the IISI 27th Annual Meeting and Conference, Paris, 1993).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    W. Bleck, “Anforderungen an Karosseriewerkstoffe,” Stahl und Eisen, 115 (1995), pp. 55–63.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    W. Zimnik et al., “Factors Influencing Planar Anisotropy of Batch-Annealed Cold Strip,” Steel Research, 64 (1993), pp. 420–424.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    B. Engl, K. Freier, and K.-P. Imlau, Cost-Effective and EcolOgical Light Weight Construction with Steel: Proceedings of a Conference, Report 12351995 (Wolfsburg, Germany: VDI) pp. 17–46.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    W. Bleck, W.W. Müschenborn, and L. Meyer, “Recrystallization and Mechanical Properties of Microalloyed Cold-Rolled Steels,” Steel Research, 59 (1988), pp. 344–351.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    W. Bleck et al., “Development of Hot-Dip Galvanized Higher-Strength Steels with Good Cold Forming Properties,” Thyssen Technische Berichte, 21 (1989), pp. 197–211.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    L. Meyer, W. Bleck, and W. Müschenbom, “ProductOriented IF Steel Design,” International Forum for Physical Metallurgy of IF Steels (Tokyo: Iron and Steel Institute of Japan, 1994), pp. 249–268.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    W. Bleck et al., “Metallurgical Design of High-Strength ULC Steels,” High-Strength Steels for Automotive Symposium Proceedings (Warrendale, PA: ISS, 1994), pp. 141–148.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    J.R. Fekete, D.C. Strugala, and Z. Yao, “Advanced Sheet Steels for Automotive Applications,” JOM, 44 (1) (1992), pp. 17–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    P. Elsen and H.P. Hougardy, “On the Mechanism of Bake-Hardening,” Steel Research, 64 (1993), pp. 685–692.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    K. Ushioda et al., “Application of Ultra Low-Carbon Steels to the Development of Superformable Sheet Steels, Solution-Hardened High Strength Sheet Steels and BakeHardenable Sheet Steels,” International Forum for Physical Metallurgy of IF Steels (Tokyo: Iron and Steel Institute of Japan, 1994), pp. 227–244.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    K. Sugimoto et al., “Warm Stretch-Formability of TRIP-Aided Dual-Phase Sheet Steels,” ISIJ International, 35 (1995), pp. 1407–1414.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    K. Yamazaki et al., Recent Advances in Ultrahigh-Strength Sheet Steels for Automotive Structural Use, Nippon Steel Technical Report 64 (1995), pp. 37–44.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    W.F. Hosford and R.M. Caddell, Metal Forming, Mechanics and Metallurgy, 2nd ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: PTR Prentice Hall, 1993).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    P. Nilles, “Qualitätsaspekte Beirn Endabmessungsnahen GieΒen,” Stahl und Eisen, 113 (1993), pp. 53–60.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© TMS 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wolfgang Bleck
    • 1
  1. 1.Aachen University of TechnologyGermany

Personalised recommendations