, Volume 45, Issue 7, pp 25–27 | Cite as

Microstructure and mechanical properties of Sn-In and Sn-Bi solders

  • J. W. MorrisJr.
  • J. L. Freer Goldstein
  • Z. Mei
Lead-Free Solder Overview


This article presents information that helps to clarify the behavior of lead-free, low-melting, eutectic Sn-In and Sn-Bi solders. The Sn-Bi solder forms a well-defined eutectic microstructure at all solidification rates, while Sn-In solder forms an irregular eutectic that changes to a fine-grained two-phase mixture at high solidification rates. Both solders wet copper by forming tin-containing intermetallics; however, Sn-In forms Sn-In-Cu intermetallics with copper and Au-In intermetallics with gold. The steady-state creep behavior of Sn-In and Sn-Bi roughly resembles that of Sn-Pb with similar microstructures. Sn-Bi further resembles Sn-Pb in that its eutectic microstructure recrystallizes within inhomogeneous shear bands. This is not observed in Sn-In. Both Sn-Bi and Sn-In exhibit pronounced strain softening during shear deformation and show early transitions to tertiary creep. Shear stress-strain behavior at normal temperatures and moderate strain rates is governed by creep; the ultimate shear stress can be inferred from the steady-state creep behavior.


Shear Band Solder Joint Tertiary Creep Eutectic Microstructure Ultimate Shear Stress 
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Copyright information

© TMS 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. W. MorrisJr.
    • 1
    • 2
  • J. L. Freer Goldstein
    • 1
    • 3
  • Z. Mei
    • 4
  1. 1.University of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA
  2. 2.Center for Advanced MaterialsLawrence Berkeley LaboratoryUSA
  3. 3.Lawrence Berkeley LaboratoryUSA
  4. 4.Department of Materials Science and Mineral EngineeringUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA

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