Advertisement

JOM

, Volume 48, Issue 2, pp 33–38 | Cite as

The environmental impact of steel and aluminum body-in-whites

  • Helen N. Han
Aluminum Overview

Abstract

To demonstrate part of a decision-making methodology, this article evaluates steel and aluminum along traditional monetary and nontraditional environmental/health cost dimensions for the lifetime of a unibody body-in-white (B-I-W). This life is divided into four stages: the mining and refining of the raw material, the manufacture and assembly of the structure, the use of the automobile, and the post-use disposal. In terms of the six airborne pollutants tracked, comparisons between steel and aluminum are easily made because this set of effluents can be traced through all stages of the B-I-W life for both metals. In this direct comparison, assuming reduced emissions translate into an unspecified measure of environmental/health benefits, aluminum generates certain benefits versus steel.

Keywords

Refining Process Monetary Cost Caustic Soda Bauxite Residue Tailpipe 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    H.N. Han and J.P. Clark, “Lifetime Costing of the Body-in-White: Steel vs. Aluminum,” JOM (May 1995), pp. 22–28.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    U.S. Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1994 (114th edition), Washington, D.C. (1994), p. 590.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    C.R Hayward, An Outline of Metallurgical Practice Second Edition (New York: D. Van Nostrand Co., 1940), pp. 498, 520.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    W.T. Lankford et al., ed., The Making, Shaping and Treating of Steel, United States Steel Corporation (Pittsburgh, PA: Herbick & Held, 1985), pp. 257, 312, 346, 336.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    W.C. Labys, “Trade in Materials, Intemational,” Concise Encyclopedia of Materials Economics, Policy & Management (New York: Pergamon Press, 1993), p. 396.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    S. Brubaker, Trends in the World Aluminum Industry (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press, 1967), pp. 158,87.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    K. Habersatter and F. Widmer, Ecobalance of Packaging Materials State of 1990 (Berne, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Office of Environment, Forests and Landscape, February 1991), pp. A7, 33-34, A16-A17.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. Tillman et al., Packaging and the Environment (Goteborg, Sweden: Chalmers Industriteknik, September 1991), pp. 7, 9, 162, 167-171.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    H.N. Han, The Competitive Position of Alternative Automotive Materials, Ph.D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (May 1994).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    J.M. Hollander, ed., The Energy-Environment Connection (Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1992), pp. 31, 34-36, 50-74, 229.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    P.K. Maitra, “Recovery of TiO2 from Red Mud for Abatement of Pollution and for Conservation of Land and Mineral Resources,” Light Metals 1994, ed. U. Mannweiler (Warrendale, PA: TMS, 1994), p. 159.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Automobile Fuel Consumption in Actual Traffic Conditions, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (December 1981), p. p112.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    SRI International, Potential for Improved Fuel Economy in Passenger Cars and Light Trucks, Prepared for the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association, Menlo Park, CA (July 1991).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. Ross, “Automobile Fuel Consumption and Emissions: Effects of Vehicle and Driving Characteristics,” Annual Review of Energy and the Environment, 19 (1994), pp. 75–112.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    C.A. Amann, “The Passenger Car and the Greenhouse Effect,” Technical Paper No. 902099 (Warrendale, PA: SAE, 1990).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Automotive Fuel Economy: How Far Should We Go?, National Research Council (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1992), pp. 72–75.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1988, DOE/EIA-0464(88), Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. 20585.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association Motor Vehicle Facts and Figures 1991, Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association of the United States: Detroit, MI.Google Scholar
  19. 20.
    R.A. Brealey and S.C. Myers, Principles of Corporate Finance (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1991), p. 13.Google Scholar
  20. 21.
    Federal Register (January 7, 1994).Google Scholar
  21. 22.
    R.J. Kopp, “Discounting for Damage Assessment,” Resources for the Future, Washington, D.C., Discussion Paper 94-31 (1994).Google Scholar
  22. 23.
    R.W. Hartman, “One Thousand Points of Light Seeking a Number: A Case Study of CBO′s Search for a Discount Rate Policy,” J. Environmental Economics and Management, 18 (1990), pp. S-3–S-7.Google Scholar
  23. 24.
    R.C. Lind, “Reassessing the Government′s Discount Rate Policy in Light of New Theory and Data in a World Economy with a High Degree of Capital Mobility,” J. Environmental Economics and Management, 18 (1990), pp. S-8–S28.Google Scholar
  24. 25.
    R.M. Lyon, “Federal Discount Rate Policy, the Shadow Price of Capital, and Challenges for Reforms,” J. Environmental Economics and Management, 18 (1990), pp. S-29–S-50.Google Scholar
  25. 26.
    R.H. Perry, D.W. Green, and J.D. Maloney, eds., Perry′s Chemical Engineers′ Handbook, 6th ed. (New York: McGrawHill Book Co., 1984), pp. 9–12.Google Scholar
  26. 27.
    IBIS Associates, Incorporated, Body-in-White Material Systems: A Lifecycle Cost Comparison (Final Report), Wellesley, MA (April 1992).Google Scholar
  27. 28.
    S.A. Mariano, F.R Tuler, and W.S. Owen, “Economic Comparison of Steel and Aluminum Automotive Structures Using Technical Cost Modeling,” Alcan Aluminum Corporation, Unpublished work.Google Scholar
  28. 29.
    A. Russell et al., “Urban Ozone Control and Atmospheric Reactivity of Organic Gases,” Science, 269 (July 28, 1995), pp. 491–495.Google Scholar
  29. 30.
    M.P. Walsh, “Environmental Challenges Posed by Growing Automobile Use,” Toward Clean and Fuel Efficient Automobiles (Paris: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 1991), p. 53.Google Scholar
  30. 31.
    B. Hileman, “Web of Interactions Makes it Difficult to Untangle Global Warming Data,” Chemical & Engineering News, 70 (17) (1992), pp. 7–19.Google Scholar
  31. 32.
    R.A. Kerr, “Studies Say—Tentatively—That Greenhouse Warming Is Here,” Science, 268 (June 16, 1995), pp. 1567–1568.Google Scholar
  32. 33.
    X. Feng and S. Epstein, “Climatic Implications of an 8OOO-Year Hydrogen Isotope Tune Series from Bristlecone Pine Trees,” Science, 265 (August 19, 1994), pp. 1079–1081.Google Scholar
  33. 34.
    K. Leutwyler, “No Global Warming?,” Scientific American (February 1994), p. 24.Google Scholar
  34. 35.
    C.S. Powell, “Cold Confusion,” Scientific American (March 1994), pp. 22–28.Google Scholar
  35. 36.
    E. Friis-Christensen and K. Lassen, “Length of the Solar Cycle: An Indicator of Solar Activity Closely Associated with Climate,” Science (November 1, 1991), pp. 698–700.Google Scholar
  36. 37.
    R.A. Kerr, “A Fickle Sun Could Be Altering Earth′s Climate After All,” Science 269 (August, 4, 1995), p. 633.Google Scholar
  37. 38.
    E. Culotta, “Will Plants Profit From High CO2?,” Science 268 (May 5, 1995), pp. 654–656.Google Scholar
  38. 39.
    S. Allen, “Predicting Oimate,” The Boston Globe (March 2, 1994), p. 28.Google Scholar
  39. 40.
    J.I. Kroschwitz, ed., Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology Fourth Edition, Volume 1 (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1991), pp. 738, 718, 726.Google Scholar
  40. 41.
    C.A. Radin, “Denial of Acid Rain Dissolving in Japan,” The Boston Globe (April 2, 1994), pp. 1, 11.Google Scholar
  41. 42.
    R.J. Charlson and T.M.L. Wigley, “Sulfate Aerosol and Climatic Change,” Scientific American (February 1994), pp. 48–57.Google Scholar
  42. 43.
    Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution, No. 0699, American Lung Association, New York, NY (July 1989), p. 34-40, 57,41-45,58,17-25,46-50.Google Scholar
  43. 44.
    R.A. Kerr, “Study Unveils Climate Cooling Caused by Pollutant Haze,” Science, 268 (May 12, 1995), p. 802.Google Scholar
  44. 45.
    D.E. Gardner and S.C.M. Gardner, “Toxicology of Air Pollution,” Basic Environmental Toxicology (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Inc., 1994), pp. 287–319.Google Scholar
  45. 46.
    D. Ham, “How to Knock NOx: Removal from Power Plant Effluents,” The Nucleus, LXXI (5) (January 1993), p. 9.Google Scholar
  46. 47.
    J.J. MacKenzie and M.T. El-Ashry, eds., Air Pollution′s Toll on Forests and Crops (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1989),p. 2.Google Scholar
  47. 48.
    L.W. Chang and L. Cockerham, “Toxic Metals in the Environment,” Basic Environmental Toxicology (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Inc., 1994), pp. 109–132.Google Scholar
  48. 49.
    R.C. Emmett and R.P. Klepper, “High Density Red Mud Thickeners,” Light Metals 1991, ed. E.L. Rooy (Warrendale, PA: TMS, 1990), pp. 229–233.Google Scholar
  49. 5O.
    C. Allaire, “Use of Red Mud for the Production of Aluminum Reduction Cell Potlining Refractories,” Light Metals 1992, ed. E.R. Cutshall (Warrendale, PA: TMS, 1991), pp. 401–406.Google Scholar
  50. 51.
    L. Piga, F. Pochetti, and L. Stoppa, “Recovering Metals from Red Mud Generated during Alumina ProductioIl,” JOM (November 1993), pp. 54–59.Google Scholar
  51. 52.
    J.I. Kroschwitz, ed., Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology Fourth Edition, vol. 2 (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1991), p. 212.Google Scholar
  52. 53.
    J.H. Goldman, “Regulatory Impediments to the Use of the Beneficial Values of Spent Potliner from Aluminum Reduction Facilities,” Light Metals 1991, ed. E.L. Rooy (Warrendale, PA: TMS, 1990), pp. 521–526.Google Scholar
  53. 54.
    D.G. Brook et al., “Thermal Treatment of Spent Potliner in a Rotary Kiln,” Light Metals 1992, ed. E.R. Cutshall (Warrendale, PA: TMS, 1991), pp. 283–287.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© TMS 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Helen N. Han
    • 1
  1. 1.Harvard Business SchoolUSA

Personalised recommendations