Anti-complement effects of anion-substituted poly(vinyl alcohol) membranes
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In a continuation of our previous studies on blood compatibility profiles of anion-substituted poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) membranes, in which hydroxyl groups have been replaced with carboxymethyl (C-PVA) and sulfonyl groups (S-PVA), we have studied the activation of complement components and the changes in white cell and platelet countin vitro and compared them with those of unmodified PVA, Cuprophane, and low-density polyethylene. Complement activation of fluid phase components, C3a, Bb, iC3b, and SC5b-9, and of bound phases, C3c, C3d, and SC5b-9, were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblot, respectively. The changes in the number of white cells and platelets following complement activation were counted using a Coulter counter. C-PVA and S-PVA activated C3 to a lesser extent than did PVA, which we attribute to the diminished level of surface nucleophiles of the samples. In addition, C- and S-PVA exhibit increased inhibition of Bb production, resulting in a decrease in the extent of C5 activation. Consequently, because of the reduced activation of C3 and C5, C- and S-PVA samples cause marked decreases in the SC5b-9 levels in plasma. We also found that the negatively charged sulfonate and carboxylate groups of the samples cause a greater extent of adsorbtion of the positively charged anaphylatoxins, C3a and C5a, because of strong electrostatic attraction, which in turn provides an inhibition of chemotaxis and activation of leukocytes. The ability to inhibit complement production, together with the binding ability of anaphylatoxins of the C- and S-PVA samples, leads to a prominent decrease in lysis of leukocytes as well as activation of platelets.
Keywordscarboxymethylated poly(vinyl alcohol) sulfonated poly(vinyl alcohol) hemodialysis membrane complement activation
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