Gold Bulletin

, Volume 16, Issue 2, pp 34–40 | Cite as

Ions from liquid gold

Field emission systems for applications in high technology
  • Philip D. Prewett
Open Access


The application of a high electric field to the surface of a liquid metal in vacuum can produce intense beams of metal ions or a beam containing both ions and charged droplets. The field emission systems based upon these processes, in the development of which liquid gold is used extensively, show considerable promise for high technology applications. In particular, the manufacture of submicron very large scale integrated (VLSI) microcircuits, and hybrid microcircuits may be radically affected.


Very Large Scale Integrate Direct Implantation Liquid Gold Very Large Scale Integrate Circuit Coated Line 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    E.W. Williams,Gold Bull., 1978,11, (2), 30–34Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    P.H. Rose,Gold Bull., 1980,13, (1), 2–6Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    R. Clampitt and D.K. Jefferies,Nucl. Instrum. Methods, 1978,149, 734–742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    G.L.R. Mair, ‘24th Int. Field Emission Symp.’, Oxford, 1977, unpublished dataGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    P.D. Prewett and D.K. Jefferies,J. Phys. D., 1980,13, 1747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    P.D. Prewett, D.K. Jefferies and T.D. Cockhill.Rev. Sci. Instrum., 1981,52, 562–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    G.I. Taylor,Proc. R. Soc. (London), 1964,A280, 383Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    P.D. Prewett, G.L.R. Mair and S.P. Thompson,J. Phys. D., 1982,15, 1339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    J.R. Oppenheimer,Phys. Rev., 1928,13, 66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    E.W. Muller and T.T. Tsong, ‘Field Ion Microscopy — Principles and Applications’, 1969, Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    D.M. MattoxJ. Vac. Sci. Technol., 1973,10, 47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    G. Carter and D.G. Armour,Thin Solid Films, 1981,80, 13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    P.D. Prewett, L. Gowland, K.L. Aitken and C.M.O. Mahony,Thin Solid Films, 1981,80, 117–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    P.D. Prewett and D.K. Jefferies, in ‘Proc. Conf. Low Energy Ion Beam-2, 1980’, Inst. Phys. Series 54, p. 316Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    R.L. Seliger, RX. Kubena, R.D. Olney, J.W. Ward and V. Wang,J. Vac. Sci. Technol., 1979,16, 1610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    J.R.A. Cleaver and H. AhmedJ. Vac. Sci. Technol., 1981,19, 1145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    M. Hansen, ‘Constitution of Binary Alloys’, McGraw-Hill, 1958Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    A. Wagner and T.M. Hall,J Vac. Sci. Technol., 1979,16, 1971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    P. Sudraud, J. van de Walle, C. Colliex and P. TrebiaJ. Physique, 1979,40, L207Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    A.R. Waugh,J Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 1980,13, L203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    R.L. Seliger and V. Wang, ‘28th Int. Field Emission Symp.’, Portland, OR., 1981, unpublishedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    K. Gamo, Y. Inomoto, Y. Ochiai and S. NambaJ. Vac. Sci. Technol., 1981,19, 1182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Y. Ochiai, Y. Inomoto, T. Ukegawa, K. Gamo and S. Namba in ‘Proc. 5th Int. Symp. on Ion Sources and Ion Assisted Technology, ISIAT’ 81’, edited by T. Takagi, Kyoto, Japan, 1981, pp. 175–182Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Dubilier Scientific, Ltd., Abingdon, U.K. — unpublished dataGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    J. Mahoney, A.T. Forrester, J. Perel and B. Kalensher, ‘Ion Assisted Sources Conf. Record’, I.E.E.E., Sept., 1980Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    R. Clampitt, M.G. Scott, K.L. Aitken, L. Gowland and P.D. Prewett, in ‘Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. on the Rapid Quenching of Metals’, Brighton, Vol. 1, Met. Soc., London, 1978Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    P.D. Prewett, L. Gowland, K.L. Aitken and C.M.O. Mahony,Thin Solid Films, 1981,80, 117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    R.F.C. Farrow, A.G. Cullis, A.J. Grant, G.R. Jones and R. Clampitt,Thin Solid Films, 1979,58, 189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    C.M.O. Mahony, UKAEA, Culham Laboratory, unpublished dataGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    C.M.O. Mahony, L. Gowland and P.D. Prewett, in ‘Proc. 29th Int. Field Emission Symp.’, edited by H.O. Andrén and H. Nordén, Goteborg, Sweden, 1982, pp. 383–391Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    C.M.O. Mahony, L. Gowland and P.D. Prewett, in ‘Proc. Conf. Low Energy Ion Beam-3’, Loughborough, Inst. Phys., March, 1983Google Scholar

Copyright information

© World Gold Council 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Philip D. Prewett
    • 1
  1. 1.Dubilier Scientific Ltd.AbingdonUK

Personalised recommendations