Variability of ribosomal DNA sites inFestuca pratensis, Lolium perenne, and their intergeneric hybrids, revealed by FISH and GISH
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This study focuses on the variability of chromosomal location and number of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sites in some diploid and autotetraploidFestuca pratensis andLolium perenne cultivars, as well as on identification of rDNA-bearing chromosomes in their triploid and tetraploidF. pratensis ×L. perenne hybrids. The rDNA loci were mapped using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 5S and 25S rDNA probes, and the origin of parental genomes was verified by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) withL. perenne genomicDNAas a probe, andF. pratensis genomic DNA as a block. FISH detected variation in the number and chromosomal location of both 5S and 45S rDNA sites. InF. pratensis mostly additional signals of 5S rDNA loci occurred, as compared with standardF. pratensis karyotypes. Losses of 45S rDNA loci were more frequent inL. perenne cultivars and intergeneric hybrids. Comparison of theF. pratensis andL. perenne genomes approved a higher number of rDNA sites as well as variation in chromosomal rDNA location inL. perenne. A greater instability ofF. pratensis-genome-like andL. perenne-genome-like chromosomes in tetraploid hybrids was revealed, indicating gains and losses of rDNA loci, respectively. Our data indicate that the rDNA loci physically mapped on chromosomes 2 and 3 inF. pratensis and on chromosome 3 inL. perenne are useful markers for these chromosomes in intergenericFestuca ×Lolium hybrids.
KeywordsFestuca ×Lolium hybrids 5S rDNA 45S rDNA GISH rDNA-FISH
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